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Full text of "Color and line in dress"

Please 



with care. 

The University of Connecticut 
Libraries, Storrs 



646.4. H378 1945 ED c.2 

# COLOR & LINE IN DRESS 




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Color Names Referred to in This Book 



HUES FOUND IN BACKGROUND SKIN TONES 



Yellow-Orange 




Orange- Yellow 



Orange 



Yellow 



Red-Orange 



HUES FOUND IN EYES 




Blue 





Green-Blue 



Violet-Blue 




Green 





Blue-Green 



Brci 



HUES FOUND IN LIPS AND CHEEKS 




Light 
Orange-Red 




Medium 
Orange-Red 



Medium 
Red 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/colorlineindressOOhemp 



Color and Line 
in Dress 



by 



LAURENE HEMPSTEAD 



Sketches by Sara Whitney Olds 



REVISED EDITION 



■0 > 



New York 
PRENTICE-HALL, INC. 

1945 




tX(j14s -dJ 



Copyright, 1931, 1938, by 

PRENTICE-HALL, INC. 

70 Fifth Avenue, New York 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS BOOK MAY BE 

REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM, BY MIMEOGRAPH OR ANY 

OTHER MEANS, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



First printing August, 1938 

Second printing December, 1938 

Third printing March, 1940 

Fourth printing November, 1941 

Fifth printing January, 1945 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



A4 



ace 



<^T) A /hatever the fashion of the moment, basic 
1/1/ principles of color and line and their effect 
upon the face and figure of the wearer remain the 
same. Those designs that violated the principles 
of design and costume selection are the ones that 
appear ludicrous when we look at the fashions of 
yesteryear. Those designs really suited to the 
wearer, enhancing the beauty of her face and figure, 
retain dignity and charm, seeming quaint, not ridic- 
ulous, to eyes accustomed to present-day fashions. 
In writing this book, the author's aim has been 
to keep basic principles of first importance, using 
fashion as a common language to help her explain 
and illustrate those principles in terms familiar to 
the reader. She has attempted to select for sketch- 
ing, styles that in some modification can be found 
in a number of models rather than specific designs 
relating to only one garment. Since we are in a 
period of unrest likely to be accompanied by sud- 
den and extreme fashion changes, some of these 
sketches may become outmoded, but the basic prin- 
ciples of costume selection, of becomingness, of 
choosing line, which enhance the appearance of the 
wearer, will remain constant. However much 
fashion may change, lines similar to those illus- 



vi Preface 

trated in these sketches can be found in some of the 
fashions of the day, for there will always be women 
with figure defects, and the best designers will al- 
ways produce models to flatter them. 

There will be trends in color, fashions in color 
for mass production; yet the different color, the 
unusual color that is truly becoming will always 
give its wearer distinction. Many a "best-dressed' ' 
woman owes her reputation largely to her faith- 
fulness to colors that she knows to be flattering. 
The author does not fear that fashion changes will 
affect the usefulness of the chapters on color. She 
expects, however, that the modern textile develop- 
ments will give us an ever-increasing range of colors 
and selection of textures. 

The author wishes to express her appreciation to 
Fairchild Publications, in whose magazines some of 
this material originally appeared, and who gener- 
ously gave her the opportunity for disinterested 

research. 

L. H. 



\^antenl£ 



Part I — Faces 

CHAPTER PAGB 

I. The Hairdress Shapes the Face . 5 
Devices that make face seem 

wider 7 

Devices that add to apparent 

length 11 

Devices that affect apparent size 

of features 13 

Irregular features 14 

II. Brooches, Clips, Necklaces, Ear- 
rings Change Apparent Con- 
tours of Face 16 

Brooches and clips change facial 

picture 16 

Necklaces that broaden ... 17 
Necklaces that slenderize . . 19 
Earrings almost always add 
width 2.0 

III. Necklines Frame the Face . . X4 
Necklines that seem to widen 

the face 14 

Necklines that add apparent 

length 2.6 

vii 



viii Contents 

CHAPTER PAGE 

III. Necklines Frame the Face (Cont?) 

Irregular features . . . . . i8 
Coat collars ....... 2.9 

IV. The Hat Is the Background for 

the Face 36 

The outlines of the face ... 36 
Veils : increase or destroy becom- 

ingness 43 

Defects may be corrected . . 45 

V. Relating the Colors Worn to 

the Pigmentation of the Skin . 54 

Make-up 55 

Devices that affect the color of 

the face 58 

Devices that change becoming- 

ness of colors 61 

Flattering colors best in case of 
doubt 65 

VI. Relating the Colors Worn to 
the Pigmentation of the Hair 

and Eyes 6y 

The hair 67 

The eyes . 70 

VII. Critical Analysis of Individual 

Coloring 74 

Rating scale for color reading . 78 
A few becoming hues preferable 
to many dubious colors . . 80 



Contents ix 

CHAPTER PAGE 

VIII. Colors Becoming to Individuals 

of Cool Coloring . . . . . 81 
Drab or neutral blonde needs 

color accent ..... 82. 
Colorful blonde permitted more 

colors 83 

Cool, dark type wears more 
forceful colors 86 

IX. Colors Becoming to Individuals 

of Warm Coloring .... 88 

Colors for the red-haired types . 89 
Color selections for the vivid 

brunette 91 

The Latin type ..... 94 

X. Intermediate Type Selects Col- 
ors to Emphasize Best Features 96 
Yellow hair, cool skin, and 

brown eyes 97 

Brown hair, brown eyes, medi- 
um or fair skin 99 

Brown hair; gray, green, or blue 
eyes; fair skin 99 

XI. Colors Vitalize Women with 

Gray or White Hair . . . . 104 
Mixed dark and gray hair diffi- 
cult problem 105 

Wider color range for definitely 
gray hair 106 



Contents 

CHAPTER PAGE 

XI. Colors Vitalize Women with 
Gray or White Hair (Cont?) 
White naif permits more vivid 

colors 107 

XII. Harmonious Combinations of 

Color 112. 

Color interest 112. 

Matching hues 115 

Related or analogous colors . 115 
Decided contrast of hue . . . 116 
Using color as a basis for ward- 
robe selection 118 

Part II— Silhouettes and Sizes 

XIII. Optical Illusions Affecting the 
Figure 130 

Critical analysis of the figure . 130 

Perpendicular lines . . . . 135 

Diagonals 137 

Horizontals 141 

Details 141 

XIV. Texture and Color Affect Sil- 
houette and Size 148 

Shiny textures increase size and K 

reveal silhouette .... 148 

Dull textures decrease size and 

conceal silhouette . . . . 150 

Stiff fabrics increase size but con- 
ceal silhouette 150 



Contents 



XI 



CHAPTER 

XIV. 



XV. 



XVI. 



XVII. 



XVIII. 



PAGE 

Texture and Color Affect Sil- 
houette and Size (CW.) 

Heavy fabrics also increase size 
and conceal silhouette . . 151 

Transparent fabrics reveal sil- 
houette 151 

Prints should be scaled to size of 
wearer 156 

Light colors increase size and 
conceal silhouette . . . . 156 

Dark colors decrease size and re- 
veal silhouette 157 

Bright colors increase size and 
reveal silhouette . . . . 158 

Dull colors decrease size and con- 
ceal silhouette 158 

Warm colors are difficult to wear 158 

Cool colors flatter all figures . 159 

Devices That Make Large Hips 
Less Evident ...... 160 

Lines Minimizing Enlarged Dia- 
phragm and Abdomen . . . . 168 
Maternity wear . . . . . 178 

Lines Modifying the Large Bust 183 
Light-colored blouse makes up- 
per figure heavy . . . . 189 

Costume Lines That Improve 
Round Shoulders 191 



xii Contents 

CHAPTER PAGE 

XIX. Methods of Hiding Large Upper 

Arm 199 

XX. Footwear, Foundation for the 

Figure 2.05 

Contrasts to be avoided . . . 2.05 
Long, slender shoe gives length 

to foot and figure . . . zo8 
Moderately high heel is usually 

wise choice 2.1 1 

Other considerations .... -lit, 

XXI. The Tall, Slender Woman . . Z14 

Tall and slim and proud of it . xi4 

Too tall and thin 2.18 

XXII. The Tall, Heavy Woman . . 2.2.1. 

Choice of fabrics 2.2.2. 

The large woman's hat . . . 2.2.9 

Footwear 2.30 

XXIII. The Short, Slender Woman . 2.32. 

Emphasizing petite charm . . 2.32. 

Space divisions . . . . 2.36 

Keeping in scale . . . . -. 2.39 

XXIV. The Short, Heavy Woman . . 2.4Z 

To keep figure inconspicuous . 2.43 

To improve the figure . . . 2.45 

Hats . . . . . . . . 248 

Footwear 2.49 



Contents 



Xlll 



CHAPTER 

XXV. 



PAGE 



Line in Relation to Mood and 

Character 2.51 

Curved lines lend youth and 

roundness . 2.^1. 

Straight lines give dignity, sim- 
plicity, and maturity . . . ±52. 
Diagonal, pointed lines are sub- 
tle, sophisticated ... X53 



Part III — Ages of Women 

XXVI. Children's Clothes . . . .2.57 

Individualized infants' clothing 2.5-/ 
Little girl wants clothes like 

mother's 2.59 

Hygienic requirements of grow- 
ing girl 2.61 

Color diminishes awkwardness . 2.65 

XXVII. The Miss in Her 'Teens . . . 2.67 

Apt and inapt age emphasis . 2.70 

Junior types X74 

Campus costumes 179 

XXVIII. The Young Woman . . . . 2.8z 

Accenting individuality . . . x8i 

The very feminine woman . . 2.86 

The forceful, energetic woman . 2.87 

XXIX. The Middle Years .... X9o 

Simplicity gives distinction . 2.91 

The hairdress 2.93 

The hat 2.97 



xiv Contents 

CHAPTER PAGE 

XXX. The Elderly Woman . . . . 301 

Hairdress and make-up . . . 301 

Hats . 304 

Necklines 307 

Fabric and color 312. 

The lines of the mode . . . 314 

Shoes 317 

XXXI. "She Wears Her Clothes Well" 318 

Index 32.7 



Color and Line 
in Dress 



Part I 



ace& 






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r ace£- 



/ny woman can approach beauty through manipula- 
tor- tion of line and color to her advantage. 

A correct and becoming costume is not only pleasing in 
itself, but enhances the attractiveness of the wearer. It 
should serve as a background for her personality. It 
should not be more forceful, more striking, than the 
woman who is wearing it. Some women have a manner 
so forceful, coloring and features so definite, that there is 
little danger of submerging their personalities with cos- 
tumes of strong color or striking design. Others are so 
unassertive, so nondescript in coloring and physical fea- 
tures, that apparel of emphatic character dominates them 
and reduces them to further insignificance. 

The face, as the key to the personality of the individual, 
should be the center of interest in the picture created by 
the costume and the wearer. The costume should be 
planned to accent the face. A costume that has striking 
footwear as its most conspicuous detail, its center of in- 
terest, detracts from the personality of the wearer because 
the observer doesn't notice her face. Hats, necklines, col- 
lars, scarfs, necklaces, shoulder flowers aid in making the 
face the focal point, concentrating interest near the face. 
Color accents are especially effective, particularly if they 
repeat the coloring of the individual. 

The most pleasing faces have an oval outline. It should 

3 



4 Faces 

be the aim of every woman not naturally blessed with a 
face of oval proportions to frame her face in outlines that 
make it simulate oval contours. The following chapters 
tell how this may be accomplished. 

It is obvious that such information is useless to a woman 
who has not definitely determined in what respects her 
own face varies from the ideal oval. Taking stock of 
one's liabilities as well as one's assets is the first step toward 
becoming as attractive as one wishes to be. Introduce 
yourself to yourself, to your best self, to that self that you 
wish to hide from the critical world. 

A face that is too broad and square or too short and 
round requires its proportions to appear definitely nar- 
rowed and lengthened. It may be feasible to do both; or, 
if one has an unfortunate effect on some feature, the other 
alone may suffice. 

Treatments of line and color, which emphasize each 
feature, are also studied in these chapters. An inventory 
of features will always result in a list of some that are 
pleasing and some that are out of proportion. In planning 
her costumes, each individual will do well to adhere to 
two strict rules: First, she must emphasize her pleasing 
features; and, second, she must center interest away from 
her unattractive features. 



CHAPTER I 



J-ke ^T'Tcii'zJLtete <~>kawe£ ike z^Jc 



dec 



/o the woman whose face has the perfect contours of 
^the ideal oval, the arrangement of her hair is a plea- 
sure, not a major problem. She may dress it to suit her 
mood or her gown, serene in the knowledge that her coif- 
fure will never detract from her facial charm. But to her 
whose imperfect facial proportions can approach beauty 
only through clever grooming, the one most effective hair- 
dress may well be the first quest and the crowning tri- 
umph; for the method of dressing the hair does ma- 
terially affect the contours of the face. 

The outlines of the hair may make the face seem less 
broad and square, less short and round, less long and thin, 
more nearly the ideal oval. They may even determine 
which features are to be prominent and which are to re- 
main safely in the background. 

Patience in combing, coaxing, training it to assume its 
most pleasing lines need be its chief cost, for brushing is 
more necessary than frequent visits to the hairdresser. 
Careful cutting and a good permanent, if one is necessary, 
should enable every woman to find and maintain a be- 
coming style of hairdress. 

It is much better to have a simple hairdress which can 

5 



The Hairdress Shapes the Face 



be kept at its best by simple daily care than an elaborate 
one which looks well only for a short time after periodical 
visits to the hairdresser. If time and income permit reg- 
ular visits to the hairdresser, flattering and interesting hair- 
dresses — impossible to maintain at home — may be a 
charming way of emphasizing individuality. Coiffures 
too obviously the beauty parlor's art rather than part of 
the natural appearance should be avoided. Neat, well- 
groomed, yet soft, natural-looking hair should be the ideal. 

Every woman knows that nothing "dates" her more 
than a hairdress which was in style five or ten years pre- 
viously. Even comparatively young women frequently 
make the mistake of looking older than they actually are 
because they wear a hairdress that was becoming to them 
in their school days, and that was youthful and modern 
when they first adopted it. 

Recently, hairdresses recalling the early part of the cen- 
tury have returned to fashion. They are definitely new to 
eyes that have seen them only in family albums, or 
worn only by older women who have never changed 
from the styles of their youth. Hair brushed up from the 
back and piled on the top of the head may, if carefully 
arranged, give a piquant, quaint look to the really young 
face. Women just approaching middle age, however, 
frequently find that these hairdresses make them look 
older, partly because it gives them an appearance of hav- 
ing worn these old-fashioned styles for many years. Un- 
less the hairline at the back of the neck is good, without 
short, straggling ends, the hair should be arranged to con- 
ceal it. 



The Hairdress Shapes the Face 



The short, mannish haircut (shingled, bobbed hair) 
may give a woman the appearance of having been young 
in the 'twenties or even before the World War. The 
"Gibson Girl" haircomb gives her the appearance of hav- 
ing been young around the turn of the century. Yet no 
hard-and-fast rules should be laid down regarding period 
hair fashions. The truly becoming hairdress, even 
though it may not be the most modern fashion, will be 
more pleasing and more youthful looking than an unbe- 
coming hairdress of this month's fashion. 

Devices That Make the Face Seem Wider 

Center part. If the hair is parted at the middle, divid- 
ing the face at 'the center line, the apparent width of the 
face is increased. This style, therefore, is recommended 
to the person with long, slender face, as it will make her 
face seem wider. It should be avoided by the woman 
whose face is too broad. Persons with irregular features 
likewise find it trying, as it tends to reveal contours. 

The center parting emphasizes the nose and should 
usually be worn only by the woman whose nose is one of 
her best features. 

Hair low on forehead. When bangs are worn covering 
the forehead, or the hair is combed low giving a similar 
effect, the apparent length of the face is greatly decreased, 
with a resultant increase in the apparent width. This 
style, therefore, is unbecoming to the broad face, but be- 
coming to the long, narrow face. If the forehead is un- 
usually high or protruding, it may be wise to cover it, at 
least partially, even though an emphasis on width is not 



The Hairdress Shapes the Face 





High side part makes 
face seem less wide; cen- 
ter part increases width. 



Hair low over forehead 
increases width of face; 
combed of? forehead de- 
creases width. 







Hair curved over ears 
and cheeks lessens facial 
width; revealing ears 
adds to apparent width. 



The Hairdress Shapes the Face 



Fine, regular waves in- 
crease size of features; 
straight simplicity min- 
imizes their size. 






QMa- 



Long hair covering neck 
at sides increases width 
of face; if tips of ears 
are revealed, neck and 
face seem more slender. 
Hair long at the back, 
but not over cheeks, 
gives flattering back- 
ground to the face. 



Large, loose hairdress 
makes face seem small- 
er; close hairdress in- 
creases width. 





io The Hairdress Shapes the Face 

desired. When hair is worn low over the forehead it 
tends to increase the size and brilliance of the eyes and, 
therefore, is sometimes becoming even to the fairly broad 
face. 

Ears exposed. When the hair is cut or combed so that 
the ears are exposed, the apparent width of the face is 
materially increased ; the eye travels the full distance from 
ear to ear. This broadening effect is particularly apparent 
when a center parting is also used. Although effective in 
increasing width and decreasing length, this type of hair- 
dressing cannot be recommended to all persons with nar- 
row faces, as it reveals contours. Regular features are re- 
quired for this severe arrangement. 

Hair covering nec\. When the hair is so arranged that 
it completely hides the ears and partially covers the neck, 
the neck is shortened and the face seems shorter and 
wider. The eye tends to travel beyond the face from the 
hair at one side to that at the other, creating additional 
width. This style, therefore, is usually becoming to the 
person with a long, thin face, especially if the neck is long 
and thin. The woman with too broad a face should be 
certain that her hair is not allowed to grow or to become 
disarranged so that it partially conceals her neck. 

When the hair is brushed back to reveal all or part of 
the ears and is long behind the ears, it may give a becom- 
ing background to the face. The effect is much more 
slenderizing than long hair which covers the ^ars and the 
sides of the face and neck. 

Close hairdress. If the hair is worn close to the head, 
giving no frame or background for the features, the face 



The Hairdress Shapes the Face 



ii 



itself is emphasized. This frequently makes the face seem 
broader, fuller. A fairly close hairdress, therefore, is be- 
coming to the woman with too thin a face, but, like the 
too-small hat, it makes the large features of the broad face 
seem wider and unduly large. 

When the ends of the hair are curled outward, the con- 
tour of the curls contrasting with the shape of the head, 
the head size seems smaller than it does when the ends are 
curled under, the roundness of the curls adding to the ap- 









The pageboy bob with the hair rolled under at the bottom is 
simple and youthful looking, but it makes the head appear larger 
than it does when the hair is curled outward. 

parent size of the head. While the large head is youthful, 
most women find the apparently smaller head improves 
their entire appearance. 

Devices That Add to Apparent Length of Face 

High side part. Hair parted on one side tends to de- 
crease the apparent width of the face, making it seem 
longer. Hair parted definitely to one side, but high, gives 
the greatest appearance of length to the face, as the very 
low part emphasizes width at the top of the head. A part- 
ing directly in line with the beginning of the eyebrow, 



12 The Hairdress Shapes the Face 

slightly farther to the side if the eyebrows are too close 
together, gives a slenderizing line for the broad face. 
The woman with thin face but irregular features, who 
cannot wear the center parting, frequently finds that the 
very low side parting is becoming. 

Combed off forehead. Hair combed back, exposing the 
forehead, reveals a greater length of face, making it seem 
longer and narrower. This is particularly true when the 
hair is combed so that it gives added height above the 
head. This style, always very trying for the long face 
that cannot afford the added length and appearance of de- 
creased width, may also be difficult for the person with a 
short, broad face, as it reveals irregularities in contour and 
emphasizes defects in the skin. 

Curved over chee\s. If the hair is combed so that it 
covers the cheeks, lessening the amount of contrasting skin 
visible on the width of the face, the face seems longer and 
narrower. This device is more effective when the hair is 
of dark or medium value, since light hair does not break 
the line so decidedly. This is a softening, generally be- 
coming, style that tends to minimize irregularities of 
feature. If the broad-faced woman is allowing her hair to 
grow long, she should be careful to train it forward over 
the cheeks and away from the neck, until it is long 
enough for more formal dressing. 

Revealing tips of ears. If the hair is so arranged that 
the tips of the ears show, the face seems longer and less 
broad. This treatment gives the neck the longest possible 
line, without the added width across the face that results 
from showing both ears entirely. 



The Hairdress Shapes the Face 



13 



Devices That Affect Apparent Si%e of Features 

Close, loose, and exaggerated hairdresses. Just as the 
close, tight hairdress emphasizes and enlarges the face, so 
the large, loose arrangement that creates a large frame for 
the face makes it seem smaller by contrast. The small, 
thin face seems unduly small; it may seem narrower and 
longer. The too-broad face loses much of its appearance 
of undesirable width. The exaggerated hairdress, if un- 





Stiff, sculptured curls, having little relation to the shape of the 
head, are less becoming than soft, natural-looking waves and curls 
arranged to add slight length to the face and figure. 

duly large, fails in its effect, as it makes the whole head 
seem larger and out of proportion. The hairdress that is 
long, giving a wide line low at the neck, fails completely 
to make the face seem smaller in contrast to the bulk of 
the hair. 

Profile hairdress. When the hairdress follows the nat- 
ural contours of the head, the features usually appear in 
best proportion, while the hairdress that alters the appar- 
ent shape of the head may exaggerate out-of-proportion 
features. A knot of hair placed at the same height as the 
nose makes its outlines more conspicuous. Similarly, one 



14 The Hairdress Shapes the Face 

placed low at the neck emphasizes the chinline, and is to 
be avoided by women with chins too prominent, too nu- 
merous, or too receding. A small knot at the hairline, one 
that does not markedly change the contours of the head, is 
becoming to almost every type of woman. 

Many small waves enlarge features. Many waves, espe- 
cially small, fine waves, or many regular undulations in 
in the hairdress, make the features seem large by contrast 
with the fine space divisions in the hair. If the features 
are irregular, small waves and numerous irregularities 
likewise emphasize this defect. A few large, loose waves, 
large indefinite curves in the outlines of the hair, are much 
more easily worn. 

Straight simplicity refines features. Straight, simple 
lines tend to refine the features and give a slender aspect 
to the face. Straight or very soft natural lines are not to 
be confused with the close hairdress, in which style hair 
is brushed severely close to the head so that it provides no 
background for the features. 

Irregular Features 

The recurring warnings in the previous sections that 
persons with irregular features should avoid this-and-that 
arrangement of the hair recommended for correcting 
various defects in proportion may seem less discouraging 
if massed for inspection. 

Many small waves, which enlarge the features by con- 
trast, also throw into relief any unduly large feature. 

Any severe treatment brings the features into promi- 
nence. In particular, the broadening styles of the center 



The Hairdress Shapes the Face 15 

part, the fully exposed ear, and the lengthening off-the- 
forehead arrangements are to be worn only by those with 
good features. It should be added that few women with 
good complexions and serene expressions need hesitate to 
reveal their faces. 

Softening styles, however, are becoming to most 
women. Large, loose, natural-looking waves, framing 
the face in lines that approach the perfect oval, drawn 
over the cheeks unless the face is too long and thin, drawn 
over the forehead if the individual wears that style well, 
perhaps a low side parting — thus does a woman blend ill- 
assorted features into an attractive face. 



CHAPTER II 




taacke^ L^Liv£, J vecklcice&y 



C^cvczivLa^ y^ltaviae <^^4-vpa p cent 



y^s&ntaivc^ &t <zz/c 



ace 



— Ihe lines that may be introduced into the costume by 
J- means of costume jewelry materially affect the ap- 
parent shape of the face. They should not be worn 
thoughtlessly, but only after careful study before a 
mirror. 

They should be chosen for their relationship to the face 
and neckline of the wearer, and to harmonize with the 
design of the costume. 

Brooches and Clips Change Facial Picture 

Carefully chosen and artfully placed pins, brooches, and 
clips effectively change the apparent contours of the face. 
Clips are especially useful, since they may be placed at the 
neckline in so many varied ways, and their position may 
be adjusted until the most becoming effect is achieved. 

A clip worn at the center, front, has a slenderizing effect 
upon the face and neck. Two clips, one at each side of 
the neckline, draw the observer's eye in a horizontal move- 

16 



Ornaments Affecting Contours of Face 17 

ment across the wearer's face and neck, giving an impres- 
sion of greatly increased width. A pair of clips, well 
placed, seem integrally a part of the costume design. 

A single clip or a pair of clips placed at one side of the 
neckline is more slenderizing than the pair divided, with 
one placed on each side. 





A clip at each side of the neckline increases the apparent width 
of the face; a single clip worn low increases apparent length of the 
face. 

Necklaces That Broaden 

Choker necklaces increase the width and roundness of 
the face, at the same time adding fullness to the neck. If 
large, round beads are used, the effect is much more ap- 
parent; if the entire choker is made of large rather than 
graduated sizes, this is still more evident. The choker 
style of necklace, fitting close around the throat, is becom- 
ing to the thin face and neck, as it not only adds width 
and roundness, but also tends to hide the bony structure of 
the neck. This type of necklace is, it should be needless to 
say, trying for the full, broad face — yet many women with 
large faces wear them. 



i8 



Ornaments Affecting Contours of Face 





Round choker makes 
face broader and round- 
er; longer, oval, gradu- 
ated beads slenderize. 



Large, round, or broad 
clasp adds width to 
face; flat, triangular 
shapes, weighed into V, 
slenderize. 






QJUl^ 



Many short strands add 
width to face; a few 
longer strands give 
length. 



Ornaments Affecting Contours of Face 19 

Necklaces made with a large, round front clasp coming 
high on the throat materially shorten and widen the face. 
This effect is increased if large, round beads as well as a 
round clasp are employed. A wide clasp may add still 
greater breadth. Many necklaces made in this fashion are 
more becoming if the clasp is worn at the back rather than 
the front. This style is becoming to the person with a thin 
neck, as it conceals the bones at the base of the neck and, 
at the same time, adds width to both neck and face. 

Numerous short strands of beads, giving a heavy effect 
about the neck, increase the width of the face in propor- 
tion to the number of strands, their shortness, and the size 
and roundness of the beads used. They are especially 
efficient in covering the bones of the thin neck, but disas- 
trous in their effect upon too-full faces and double or triple 
chins. 

Necklaces That Slenderise 

If oval or elongated shaped beads are used, especially if 
they are arranged in graduated sizes and if the necklace 
does not fit too closely about the throat but is slightly 
longer than the choker length, an oval shape is created 
that aids in emphasizing the oval contours of the face. 
For the face that is neither too broad nor too narrow, the 
proportions of which do not need changing, this length 
may be becoming. The woman whose face is much too 
full will find it only slightly less trying than the choker, 
while those whose faces are either a trifle too narrow or 
too full will find models in this type of necklace that will 
improve the contours. 



20 Ornaments Affecting Contours of Face 

Necklaces made of flat, elongated shapes, with a long 
rather than a broad or round clasp or pendant at the front, 
add length and decrease the apparent breadth of the face, 
avoiding emphasis upon round or curving lines. Trian- 
gular shapes, with a larger triangle at the front weighting 
the necklace into a F-line, provide one effective means of 
adding to the length and decreasing the width of the face. 
Many other forms of necklace in which this principle is 
followed may be found. 

Pronouncedly angular shapes may emphasize angular 
contours or, by contrast, make rotundity more evident. 
As a general rule, however, flat and somewhat geometric 
or angular shapes are more becoming to the too-full face 
than thick or curved shapes, while the thin, angular face 
finds them wearable. 

A few longer strands of beads, one, two, or sometimes 
three, arranged so that they form a series of oval lines, may 
increase the apparent length of the face, decrease its width, 
and emphasize oval contours. Many women destroy the 
pleasing effect of long strands by winding them too many 
times and too closely about the throat. On the other 
hand, the woman who is too thin may make both her face 
and her figure appear fuller if she doubles or triples a long, 
slender necklace. 

Earrings Almost Always Add Width 

All earrings tend to increase the apparent width of the 
face, leading the observer's eye across the face from ear to 
ear rather than up and down. For this reason they are 
becoming to many women, especially those whose faces 



Ornaments Affecting Contours of Face 21 

are too thin or too narrow in structure. Women of this 
type look their best with earrings and should affect them 
whenever they may consistently be worn. As they are 
made in designs suitable for all types of costumes, women 
to whom they are becoming may wear them at almost all 
times. 

If earrings are becoming, they add interest to the face, 
giving it sparkle and animation. The eyes especially may 
be flattered by earrings of becoming texture and color. 

Large, round, button earrings add most to the width and 
roundness of the face, frequently giving a pleasing em- 
phasis of curves to the too-thin face, but unduly emphasiz- 
ing rotundity in one that is already too full. 

Earrings, all earrings, are decidedly unbecoming to a 
large number of women, some of whom persistently lessen 
their attractiveness by wearing them, even though all sem- 
blance of oval contour in the face is destroyed. The face 
that may seem a pleasing oval in the absence of earrings 
may seem round or even square when they are worn. 

Large, round disks and hoops add almost as much 
width as the round, button earrings. Although they add 
some length as well as width, they cause the eye to travel 
in circles, emphasizing the curves in the face. Therefore, 
they tend to add roundness to the face and neck. If too 
large and heavy they may make the extremely small, thin 
face seem smaller and more angular by contrast, but their 
more frequent effect is that of increasing the width and 
roundness of the face. They are, or should be, prohibited 
the woman whose face is originally too wide. 

Earrings that are oval or rectangular in shape create a 



22 Ornaments Affecting Contours of Face 




If earrings are not worn, 
the face usually seems 
more slender; round 
button earrings add per- 
ceptible width and full- 
ness; disks and hoops 
also give an impression 
of added roundness. 



Small, flat earrings add 
less width to the face 
than do long and mas- 
sive pendants; long, 
slender pendants may 
add length to the face. 




feeling of length as well as of width. Therefore, particu- 
larly if worn close to the face, they add little, if any, width. 
The person whose face is naturally of pleasing propor- 
tions, but who appears to disadvantage when material 
width is added by earrings with round lines, frequently 
finds that oval and rectangular shapes aid in emphasizing 
the already pleasing contours. The person whose face is 
slightly too full or a trifle narrow may frequently select 
becoming earrings from the oval and rectangular shapes. 
Extremely long, massive, pendant earrings, reaching to 
the shoulder, hide the neck and thus add materially to the 



Ornaments Affecting Contours of Face 23 



width of both face and figure. Massive earrings add 
breadth to the face, even if they are not exceptionally long, 
but the longer they are the more the neck is shortened, 
with resultant increased width of figure. The very tall, 
thin woman with long, thin neck may frequently affect 
large pendant earrings, but the great majority of women 
find them extremely unbecoming, if not ridiculous. 

Heavy pendants are likely to pull the ear lobe out of 
shape, giving the entire face a distorted appearance. Ear- 
rings touching the shoulder are especially unbecoming to 
the round-shouldered woman. The effect of long ear- 
rings should always be studied from front, side, and back 
views. 

Long, slender earrings usually do not increase breadth 
and may create long, slender lines, adding to the length 
and lessening the width of the face. The extremely nar- 
row face may find them very trying, while the person 
whose face already possesses sufficient breadth, or perhaps 
a trifle too much, may find them vastly slenderizing and 
becoming. Delicate, dainty, slender earrings will, how- 
ever, make the heavy, very full, large face seem larger by 
contrast, no earrings being becoming to faces of this type. 



CHAPTER III 

y Veckuue^ <z^s f i&wLe lite <=^/cice 

~7he frame for the face provided by necklines and col- 
^/"lars greatly influences the apparent shape of the 
face. Necklines should be chosen carefully with consid- 
eration of their becomingness, their effect upon the con- 
tours of the face, for probably no other detail of a garment 
is so important in its effect upon the appearance of the 
wearer. The correct neckline used with hats and costume 
jewelry of pleasing lines aids greatly in making the face 
seem an ideal oval and, likewise, in making it the center of 
interest of the costume. Unbecoming necklines may fre- 
quently be made less difficult to wear if they are used with 
necklaces, scarfs, flowers, or other accessories that alter 
their lines. 

Necklines That Seem to Widen the Face 

A high, close collar covering the neck, or a scarf 
wrapped in high, close effect, shortens the face and there- 
by increases its apparent width. This high line, especially 
if achieved by means of softer drapes and folds, is becom- 
ing to the too-thin or too-narrow face, but extremely diffi- 
cult for one that is originally too broad and full. A 
straight, stiff line in a high collar may increase angularity 

24 



Necklines Frame the Face 25 

in the thin face, soft-scarf effects being much more becom- 
ing. Scarfs have the added advantage that they may be 
arranged to give lower and more becoming lines to the 
too-broad face. 

Horizontal lines leading the eye across the face and neck 
tend to increase their apparent width. Therefore, square 
necklines, as well as those that extend across from shoul- 
der to shoulder, increase the appearance of width in the 
face, making it seem perceptibly wider than is actually the 
case. Scarfs draped in a horizontal line give this broad- 
ening effect, at the same time tending to be less severe, 
being less likely to accent angularity than straight or 
square-cut outlines. 

The round neckline tends to carry the eye across the 
face and neck, increasing the apparent width and at the 
same time emphasizing curves in a manner that lends 
grace to the too-thin face but exaggerates the fullness in 
the too-broad face. The woman with a narrow face finds 
the round neckline becoming, adding to the attractiveness 
of both face and neck. The woman whose face is too 
wide finds that it gives an increased appearance of rotund- 
ity, and it should not be worn, except with accessories that 
break the round line and create long or F-shapes. 

A round collar, fitting in close lines about the neck, 
shortens the neck, increases the apparent width of the 
face, and adds decidedly to its rotundity. It charmingly 
emphasizes youthful curves in the face that is nearly the 
ideal oval in shape and aids in making the too-thin face 
seem fuller, but it should be carefully selected for the very 
thin face, as its round lines may, by contrast, emphasize 



26 



Necklines Frame the Face 



angularity. The person with too-full face, especially one 
that has mature heavy curves, will always find this very 
round, youthful collar unbecoming. 

Necklines That Add Apparent Length 

The neckline that is cut low tends to make the face 
appear smaller in contrast to the amount of throat ex- 





High, close collar in- 
creases width; low 
line, which supplies 
larger background, gives 
length. 





Square line increases 
width; F-neckline de- 
creases apparent width. 



posed. For this reason the face usually appears smaller 
when evening dress is worn, particularly if it is extremely 
decollete. The low neckline is usually becoming to the 
woman with too-full face, but for the woman with a thin, 
narrow face its effect should be offset by lines that tend to 
add width* 



Necklines Frame the Face 



27 



The F-line, leading the eye down and inward, makes 
the face and throat appear longer, more slender than their 
true proportions. In this day, when slenderness of face 
and figure is so universally desired, the F-line is peren- 
nially in fashion, as it proves becoming to the majority of 
women. The woman with an extremely narrow face will 



Round, high neckline 
broadens; lower, oval or 
F-line is more slender- 
izing. 





Round, close collar in- 
creases width; pointed 
collar makes face seem 
longer. 



frequently find that it makes her face appear too thin, 
although this effect can be largely overcome by the use 
of a round choker necklace, a flower, or a round or broad 
pin placed so that it softens the F-line. The too-broad 
face is frequently benefited by a necklace, a pin, or other 
accessory that accents the F-neckline. 



28 



Necklines Frame the Face 



A narrow oval line adds length to the face, giving an 
impression of oval facial contours. The long, slender 
oval, like the V, is generally becoming. In fact, the oval 
is more becoming than the V to the face inclined to be 
thin. 

Pointed collars, especially if they fit around the neck 
with a slight V, make the face seem longer and less full. 
A narrow collar with long slender points, the points 




Numerous, fine details accentuate irregularities; soft simplicity 
minimizes irregularity of features. 

placed down at the center rather than out at the sides, 
gives a decided slenderizing effect. This type of collar, so 
appropriate for sportswear, is trying to the thin, narrow 
face, but becoming to the broad one. 

Irregular Features 

Too many folds, curves, or other details tend to accentu- 
ate irregularities in the features, to make the too-full face 
heavy and the too-thin face sharp and angular. Of the 
f wo extremes, the too-thin face can, however, wear minute 



Necklines Frame the Face 29 

and numerous details to better advantage. Many ruffles, 
frills, or pleatings near the face may soften too-thin fea- 
tures, while they would make the broad face seem heavy 
only by contrast with their fine detail. 

Soft, smoothly flowing, rhythmic lines, rather than 
those that are harsh and rigid in outline, tend to conceal 
the contours of the face. They are, therefore, becoming 
to the majority of women, soft outlines of well-chosen 
shapes being more flattering than rigid lines following 
the same shape. Both the too-full and the too-thin face 
find them pleasing, especially if the features are irregular. 

For this reason scarf necklines, which not only supply 
soft flowing lines, but which may be draped to assume 
almost any shape becoming to the wearer, are especially 
valuable. They conceal the defects of either the too-thin 
or the too-full face or neck. 

Coat Collars 

Collars open at the throat give length. High, close 
coat collars, or those with a scarf worn wrapped high and 
close around the neck, shorten or completely cover the 
neck and, by shortening the area of skin exposed, decrease 
the length and width of the face. This type of collar, 
particularly if of soft fur or fabric, or draped in soft lines, 
is becoming to the narrow, thin face. Stiff fabrics in 
harsh lines may be too severe for the thin, angular face. 
This type of collar tends to make the figure seem taller 
and more slender, therefore, if not too high and close, 
and may be recommended to the person with moderately 
full face and figure. 



. 



Necklines Frame the Face 



The collar or scarf that is draped low at the throat but 
high in the back gives a becoming background for the 
face, while, by revealing the throat, it makes the face seem 
longer and more slender. Many straight collars give this 
becoming effect when worn open; and scarfs may be 
draped so that this line is created. 

If the collar is worn high at the neck and as low as 
possible at the throat in front, the line will be becoming to 
the broad face. 




Collar worn high covering tip of chin widens the face; collar 
lower at throat accents length. Ends extending out at sides give 
breadth; ends hanging down increase length. 

Ends may give length or breadth. Short scarfs or tab 
ends extending straight across the neck and out at the sides 
create a horizontal line that makes the face seem percep- 
tibly broader. The figure is also made to seem wider. 
Many scarf effects may be arranged to form broad, hori- 
zontal lines, although the broadening may not be pro- 
nounced. 

When a scarf or tie collar hangs down, creating a per- 
pendicular line, the observer's eye is carried downward 



Necklines Frame the Face 



3i 



and the face is made to seem longer and less broad. The 
ascot tie, a smart way of wearing scarfs, gives a long line 
which, especially if tied low so that the throat is exposed, 
has slenderizing effects upon the face and upon the figure 
as well. Scarfs of a fabric that is soft and supple, rather 
than bulky, are most slenderizing, because they do not 
tend to cover all the neck. 
Fur band or fur over lapels. A band of fur or other 




Fur band across top of collar increases width; fur extending 
down over lapels lengthens. 

trimming across the top of a collar gives apparent width to 
the face, even when the collar is worn open, as a horizon- 
tal line is created back of the face. The more pronounced 
this trimming, the more decided the contrast between it 
and the body of the coat, the more evident is the broad- 
ening effect upon the face. 

If the fur extends down over the lapels of the coat, car- 
rying the observer's eye downward rather than straight 
across the collar, the face seems longer and more slender. 



3 2 



Necklines Frame the Face 



An effect similar to that of a F-neckline has been created. 
This, of course, applies only to the coat that is worn open 
or, at least, turned back to display the long line created by 
the fur. 

Points may give length or width. Collars that are 
shaped so that a point comes low over each shoulder, ex- 
tending far out at the sides, tend to make both the face 





Wide, low points at sides give width; narrow, high points form 
slenderizing background. 

and figure of the wearer seem broader, for the effect is 
much the same as that of a horizontal line at this point. 
Frequently, collars of this type may be arranged so that 
the broadening effect is less evident. The points may 
be folded over or made to seem less wide if the collar is 
standing up at the back and the points are away from the 
shoulder at the front. 
A collar cut so that the points are high and placed 



Necklines Frame the Face 



33 



toward the back rather than the front of the shoulders, 
and cut narrow so that it does not extend across the shoul- 
ders, tends to lead the eye up and down rather than across 
the figure. The face and, likewise, the figure of the 
wearer therefore appear longer and more slender. 

Lapels, wide or narrow. A collar made with wide, 
pointed lapels, the points extending up and outward, like- 
wise carries the eye out across the figure, making the face 




Wide, pointed lapels increase width; narrow, notched lapels 
decrease width. 

and shoulders appear wider. It provides a youthful, boy- 
ish line that may be pertly becoming to slender faces and 
figures, but difficult for those that are full or heavy. 

Slender, narrow, notched lapels lead the eye up and 
down, following the lines of a narrow V. The very thin 
woman finds the lines too long and too severe, accenting 
angularity and increasing the length of her face, neck, and 
figure. The woman whose face and neck need effects 



34 



Necklines Frame the Face 



giving increased length and decreased width finds them 
much more becoming than wide lapels. 

Big fur collars. A short, rather square or bulky collar, 
particularly if made of long-haired furs, tends to hide the 
neck and thus shorten the face, and at the same time to 
lead the observer's eye outward, making both the face 
and figure appear fuller. For the person with a thin face 
and neck, this is a graceful and becoming style, but for 
many persons it is extremely difficult. 




V>M>> 




^^^i^ 



Short, bulky collar increases width; long, shawl collar increases 
length. 

The long shawl collar, forming an elongated V- or oval 
line, makes both the face and the figure seem longer and 
more slender. This collar has an advantage for the face, 
in that, even when worn closed, it continues to form a F- 
line rather than a straight, high line. It has a disadvan- 
tage for the figure, particularly if long-haired furs are em- 
ployed, in that, when closed, its several thicknesses of 
fur and fabric are usually concentrated over the bust, 
making the top of the figure appear heavy and mature. 



Necklines Frame the Face 35 

The collar line that is formed with a band extending 
straight down the front or with a diagonal line reaching 
to the hem gives even greater height to the figure, at the 
same time making the face appear more slender. The 
shawl collar, ending in facings extending to the hem inside 
the coat, may give a similar effect. 



CHAPTER IV 



ke ^r-rai <z^£ tke d^ackatiyiinJi 
r&t tke ^=^a 



ace 



" Ihe hat can probably do more to alter the contours of 
^Athe face than any other item of wearing apparel. It 
may form a frame softening the outlines of the face. 
Lacking sufficient size to form a frame, it may reveal the 
features frankly, to their advantage, perhaps, if they are 
good; to their disadvantage, if they are not perfect enough 
to be thrown into relief. 

An interesting and becoming hat has a powerful influ- 
ence in centering attention on the face. A hat should 
never, however, be so intricate in detail, so attention-com- 
pelling, that it, rather than the face, becomes the center 
of interest. 

The Outlines of the Face 

A small, close-fitting hat that is narrower than the wid- 
est part of the face gives the features undue prominence, 
making them seem large and out of proportion. Even the 
person with regular, delicate features finds the turban that 
is narrower than her features unbecoming, as it makes the 
top of her head seem unduly narrow and the cheek bones 

36 



The Hat Is the Background for the Face 37 



or widest part of the face too wide. Crowns of brimmed 
hats, also, should not appear narrower than the face. 

A close-fitting hat should be slightly wider than the 
widest part of the face, making the features seem smaller 
and more delicate, and the face and entire head more 
pleasingly proportioned. In most instances the hat 




A straight tight turban narrower than face materially increases 
width; irregular, softly draped line is more slenderizing. 

should not be markedly wider than the face ; the large hat 
makes the small face seem unduly small, and it makes 
most heads seem too large and out of proportion to the 
body. 

Asymmetric trimming usually desirable. A small or 
brimless hat, particularly an off-the-forehead hat with 
trimming alike on both sides, relentlessly reveals irregu- 
larity. Contours unlike on both sides of the face are par- 
ticularly evident when the hat with bisymmetric trimming 
is worn. 

Trimming alike on both sides of the hat emphasizes the 
sides of the face, leading the eye across and thereby increas- 



38 The Hat Is the Background for the Face 

ing apparent width. This principle is applicable to both 
turbans and brimmed hats. Trimming placed exactly in 
the center also gives a bisymmetric division. 

Soft transitional lines and asymmetric design (that 
which is not alike on both sides) hide facial defects, espe- 
cially concealing the dissimilarity between features unlike 
on both sides. If the features are pronouncedly irregular, 
a brim shadowing the face will be most flattering. If 




Bisymmetric trimming emphasizes width; asymmetric trimming 
decreases width. 

only slightly irregular, softer lines in an asymmetric tur- 
ban may be worn. 

Trimming that is unlike on the two sides tends to de- 
crease the width of the face and, at the same time, makes 
irregularities less conspicuous. Trimming should always 
be slightly to one side, never at the exact center, and 
should preferably be asymmetric in design and balance. 
Trimming placed at one side only provides the simplest 
method of producing an asymmetric effect. 

Straight lines unpleasing. A brim extending straight 



The Hat Is the Background for the Face 39 

across the forehead cuts off the top of the head, thereby 
decreasing the length of the face and materially increasing 
its width. A straight brim extending far out at the sides 
and back is particularly trying, as it carries the width out 
beyond the face. 

A brim with an irregular line rather than one extending 
straight across the face causes no definite break in the 
length of the face. The eyebrow line, so smart some sea- 




A straight, or nearly straight, sailor hat gives breadth to the 
face; an irregular horizontal line makes it seem more slender. 

sons, is particularly effective, in that it not only introduces 
no horizontal break, but carries the eye definitely upward, 
thereby increasing the apparent length of the face. The 
hat line extending upward on an oval line over the fore- 
head aids in giving oval contours to the face. 

A straight turban with a straight line across the fore- 
head, especially if it is made with a band or cuff draped in 
predominantly horizontal lines, decreases the length of 
the face and increases the width in a manner that may be 
even more apparent than in the case of a straight brim, for 



40 The Hat Is the Background for the Face 

the turban fails to give the large background that may 
reduce the size of the face. 

The turban draped with an irregular line, particularly 
with part of the forehead revealed, increases the apparent 
width of the face. The turban worn slanted in a diag- 
onal line over the forehead, down at one side and up at the 
other, is more slenderizing than one worn straight, thus 
creating a horizontal line across the head. 





Drooping brim hides face, shortening and widening it; turned- 
up brim adds length. 

Drooping brim widens face. The drooping brim hides 
the upper part of the face and decreases its length. As 
the drooping brim frequently has a horizontal line, which 
further increases the impression of width, it is particularly 
effective in making the too-long face look fuller, but un- 
becoming to the woman whose face is broad. 

The hat coming low at the sides, hiding the neck and 
ears, carries the observer's eye downward, decreasing 
height. The face also looks shorter because the neck is 
hidden. If the long, drooping, shadowy brim partly 



The Hat Is the Background for the Face 41 

covers the face, it may decrease width as well as length. 

The turned-up brim, revealing the face and carrying the 
eye upward, gives long, slender contours. When part of 
the forehead is revealed, the line over the forehead curv- 
ing high rather than extending straight across, the slender- 
izing effect of the hat with the upturned brim is further 
increased. 

In this, as in other hats, soft textures, rhythmically flow- 




A drooping brim repeating the drooping lines of the face makes 
them more evident; a brim turned upward may seem to lift the 
face. 

ing lines, rather than harsh, rigid ones, are much more 
easily worn and much more likely to emphasize a pleasing 
oval in the face. The turned-up brim may be very severe 
if textures and lines are stiff. 

Shorter lines at the side, revealing the tips of the ears, 
make the face seem longer and more slender. 

When fashion decrees hats coming down well over the 
head, it is wise to remember that styles are more flattering 
if they do not cover the entire ear but reveal its tip. Too 
short a line, revealing the entire ear and giving a hori- 



42 The Hat Is the Background for the Face 



zontal effect extending from the forehead around the 
head, is much less becoming than the line that curves 
down, covering most of the ear but not its tip. 

Lines that follow natural contours pleasing. Heavy 
lines and bulky folds make the face seem likewise heavy 
and stolid, at the same time causing the entire head to 
seem bulky and large. Occasionally, a very small face 




A crown that seems too small for the head makes the wearer 
appear awkward; a crown that appears logically to fit the head 
gives the wearer more graceful proportions. The hat should ap- 
pear to be able to remain in place on the head. 

will seem smaller by contrast with the massive type of hat, 
which is difficult for any woman to wear. It is this design 
so often used in matrons' hats that makes many women 
look older and more awkward than is actually the case. 
The woman of middle age so frequently betrays her years 
by the choice of a clumsy hat. 

Hats that appear logically and structurally to fit the 
head are the most pleasing, giving the best proportions to 
the face and figure. Lines that follow the natural out- 
lines of the head, with modifications planned to correct 



The Hat Is the Background for the Face 43 



defects and make the face seem more nearly the ideal 
oval, are most becoming and artistically correct. 

A well-designed hat, suited to its wearer, should appear 
to be able to remain in place on the head without the aid 
of elastics or pins. If it appears about to fall of? it is not 
truly becoming. 

High, heavy crowns ; tall, pointed crowns ; twisted, con- 




A round crown and circular brim repeat the round lines in the 
face; broken and diagonal lines neither repeat nor oppose the 
round lines of the face and are therefore flattering to most women. 

torted shapes having no relation to the natural shape of 
the head — these are the "amusing" hats that appear gro- 
tesque on most women. These are the hats that men ridi- 
cule and usually dislike. 

Veils: Increase or Destroy Becomingness 

When veils are the fashion they are entirely too widely 
and indiscriminately used. The smart woman, disgusted 
at the large number she sees which are unsuited to the 
hats upon which they are placed, and which are decid- 
edly unbecoming to the wearer, rejects veils for herself. 



44 The Hat Is the Background for the Face 



Then they are on the way out of fashion. Yet veils, if 
rightly used, are flattering and are an effective means of 
modifying the lines of unbecoming hats and useful for 
freshening older ones. 

May soften stiff hats. Hats which are becoming to the 
wearer, but which seem a little stiff or harsh, will have a 
softer and more flattering outline with a veil draped over 




A veil creates new lines; the veil partially covering the face 
introduces a horizontal line making the face seem shorter and 
wider. A small, round hat with a soft bowlike trimming may 
obtain softness, requisite width, and a feeling of height. 

them. A veil draped entirely over the hat and not over 
the face of the wearer may be made to give width where 
it is needed, or to give added height without introducing 
bulk. 

Veil over face most becoming to slender women. 
When the veil covers or partly covers the face, it creates 
a horizontal break in line which makes the face seem 
fuller and, frequently, lessens the apparent height of the 
figure. Therefore, a veil extending down over the face 



The Hat Is the Background for the Face 45 

may be very kind to the too-thin woman, partly because 
it both gives a suggestion of width and partially obscures 
and thus softens the contour. The woman with a broad 
face should either wear her veil thrown back or have it 
covering the entire face. 

Flowing, loose veils which blow about the head with 
the slightest movement of air belong only on dainty, well- 
groomed, slender women. When flowing veils are worn, 
the rest of the costume should be free from floating ends. 

The complexion when veiled seems clearer, because 
imperfections are hidden. If the veil is black or of a dark 
color, the skin seems whiter by contrast. Fragile, delicate 
veiling textures are most suitable for dainty women. 
Veils of heavier texture may give a well-groomed appear- 
ance to women of too pronounced a character to wear the 
fragile veiling suitable to petite women. 

Defects May Be Corrected 

"But if it weren't for my nose, my face would be all 
right," wails one woman. Another bemoans too much 
chin; another, the lack of it. 

Frequently, the face approximates the ideal oval, is not 
markedly too narrow or too wide, but possesses one feature 
that is out of proportion, destroying harmony and beauty. 
The lines of the face may be noticeably irregular. Hats 
have a pronounced influence on the size and shape of the 
features. 

Repetition emphasizes lines. If unpleasing lines in the 
face are repeated in the hat, they become much more evi- 
dent. A drooping brim, the lines of which are similar to 



46 The Hat Is the Background for the Face 

drooping lines of the face, makes the face seem older and 
more haggard, because the facial defects are emphasized, 
made more important than more pleasing lines. Lines 
from nose to mouth are made especially conspicuous when 
a hat droops at the same angle. 

Repetition will emphasize any line, whether pleasing or 
unpleasing. A hat, therefore, should always repeat pleas- 
ing lines, if it repeats any at all. The face with marked 
defects will, nevertheless, possess some pleasing lines. Al- 
though the mouth may droop, the chin may have a desir- 
able oval line. If this is repeated in the curving line of the 
brim, the oval, not the drooping, line will be accented. 

Contrast may also emphasize features. Lines at right 
angles to unpleasing lines in the face emphasize them in a 
very disagreeable manner. Drooping lines about the 
mouth will become much more evident when a hat brim 
turns upward in a line directly opposite to those of the 
mouth. Not only is the defect emphasized by lines in 
opposition to it, but it is caricatured. 

Opposing lines may likewise emphasize pleasing lines 
in the face, accenting good features and ideal oval con- 
tours. A hat brim reversing the curve of the oval chin 
may accent the line of the chin as much as would the curve 
repeating it. In fact, the face appears more oval with an 
oval line at both the bottom and the top of the head. 

Transitional lines are becoming. Straight, stiff lines, 
having little or no relation to the lines of the face, are harsh 
and severe, making the facial lines unduly prominent. 
Too-full curves are accented in contrast to the straight- 
lines, and the face is made broader because straight lines 



The Hat Is the Background for the Face 47 



in crown and brim cut off the top of the face. Angular 
lines appear more angular, partly because they have some 
relation to the straight lines of the hat, and partly because 
the straight type of brim reveals rather than shadows the 
face. 

Lines that neither repeat nor oppose those of the face 
are becoming to the person with irregular features, as they 
distract attention from facial defects. A brim with a 




Turned-up brim emphasizes turned-up nose; brim shadowing 
face conceals tilted nose. 

slanting, slightly curved line, higher at one side than at the 
other, becomingly shadows the face without calling atten- 
tion to either good or bad facial characteristics. If the 
features are dissimilar on the two sides, as they are on the 
majority of faces, this type of hat is usually becoming. 

Turned-up nose. Hats that have, an upward-sweeping 
line at the front unduly emphasize the upward-curving 
line of the nose that is politely termed retrousse. A curv- 
ing brim that appears to repeat exactly the profile line of 
the nose may give a truly ridiculous effect. A line that 



48 The Hat Is the Background for the Face 

is directly opposite and that shows a curve exactly the re- 
verse of that of the nose will, by its very contradiction, 
make the nose conspicuous. The brimless hat that re- 
veals the profile without modification likewise accents the 
uptilted nose. A point or some other striking detail at the 
center of the hat is also undesirable. 

A soft brim, one that droops rather than curves down- 
ward, shadows the face and conceals the curve of the up- 




Large nose made more prominent by tricorne; hat brim larger 
in front makes nose less prominent. 

turned nose. A soft but only slightly irregular brim is 
most becoming. Either a severely straight or an ex- 
tremely irregular line emphasizes the contours of the face. 
Large nose. The large, prominent nose is made more 
so by repetition of its shape in the lines of a hat. The tri- 
corne, with a point at the front similar to that of the nose, 
makes that feature unduly conspicuous. Sometimes 
there appear to be three noses on the hat and one on the 
face, an effect not only unbecoming but ludicrous as well. 
Small, brimless hats, and those with little or no brim at 



The Hat Is the Background for the Face 49 

front and a longer one at the back, make the larger nose 
more prominent. Bisymmetric shapes or trimming 
placed exactly in the center also give emphasis to the nose. 
The hat with a brim longer at the front than at the 
back, with trimming massed near the front, building out 
the forehead, gives balance to the large nose and makes it 
less conspicuous. Too-heavy masses at the front, destroy- 
ing the balance of the head, would, of course, defeat their 





A brim extending forward accentuates a receding chin; a brim 
sweeping up centers interest high on the head. 

purpose, calling attention to the defect they are meant to 
conceal. 

Receding chin. Trimming masses at the front, build- 
ing out the front of the head, or brims longer at the front, 
make the receding chin even more insignificant than is 
naturally the case. If the hat repeats the slanting line of 
the profile this effect is intensified. 

A hat of moderate size, shadowing the forehead, mak- 
ing the upper part of the face less important, tends to bring 
the too-small lower part of the face into scale. The brim 
may be wide at the sides ; it should, at least, extend beyond 



50 The Hat Is the Background for the Face 



the widest part of the face, but should fit closely at the 
back, as a heavy line at this point makes the chin seem 
smaller by contrast. 

The up-turned brim revealing the upper part of the face 
and centering attention high on the head makes a receding 
chin less noticeable. 

Protruding chin. When the chin protrudes, the profile 
assumes a backward slanting line that becomes most un- 




Forehead revealed exaggerates protruding chin; emphasis at 
front of hat minimizes protruding chin. 

pleasing when accentuated by a hat that slopes back from 
the forehead. This line is particularly disastrous in a tur- 
ban or in a hat in which the brim turns abruptly away 
from the face, although a crown with these lines is unbe- 
coming even when combined with a brimmed hat. 

The protruding chin can be minimized by devices that 
build out the forehead, bringing the upper part of the face 
into scale with that of the lower. Trimming placed near 
the front, brims that extend well forward rather than slop- 
ing back, and those extending beyond the chin line at 
front aid in reducing the chin. Unduly large, heavy 



The Hat Is the Background for the Face 51 



effects over the forehead, those so massive that they do 
not appear to belong there, will only appear awkward and 
make the forehead seem smaller by comparison with their 
bulk, thereby making the protruding chin more obvious. 

Double chin. Heavy bulges and folds, or numerous 
curves, repeat the drooping curves and lines of the double 
chin. The hat that curves down over the cheek and the 




Double chin emphasized by heavy folds and curves; interest cen- 
tered high aids double chin. 

one that is lower at the back repeat the line of the chin and 
by so doing call attention to a feature that every woman 
wishes to avoid emphasizing. Trimming placed low on 
the neck is unbecoming, especially if the neck as well as 
the chin is heavy. The turban and the very stiff, straight 
hat are likewise unbecoming, as they reveal contours. 

The double chin is best concealed by a hat with a mod- 
erate brim, and by soft but not unduly curved or irregular 
lines in both brim and crown. Lines and trimming 
should be designed to center interest high on the head, 



52 The Hat Is the Background for the Face 

preferably near the front. Brims that turn up at the back 
tend to lead the eye upward, away from the neck and chin. 
Brimmed hat shadows glasses, concealing corners. 
Glasses, particularly heavy-rimmed spectacles, create an 
out-of-proportion feature, giving square corners to the 
face. A small hat, beyond which the square corners pro- 




Small hat reveals square corners of glasses; brimmed hat 
shadows glasses concealing corners. 

trude, is decidedly unbecoming to any woman who must 
wear glasses on the street or at other times when a hat is 
worn. Brimless hats, extremely small brims, and those 
that turn up sharply away from the face should be avoided. 
A hat with a brim that extends at least slightly beyond 
the corner formed by the glasses shadows them and pre- 
vents disturbing reflections of light that make the lenses 
more conspicuous. A soft, slightly drooping line is most 
becoming. A large brim tends further to minimize the 
glasses, but must, of course, be selected with discretion, 



The Hat Is the Background for the Face 53 

after due consideration of other features of the face and 
figure of the wearer. When heavy, shell-rimmed spec- 
tacles are worn, sport or tailored styles of hats and other 
apparel designed with simplicity of detail are most appro- 
priate. 




CHAPTER V 

u^elatiita tke ^&lat£ l/Ua'cti ta tke 
lawieniali&vi aj: tke <^>kcft 

/lthough one may make general classification of col- 
c^r ors suited to types, specific recommendations of 
colors becoming to individuals should be based upon 
analysis of their skin, hair, and eyes. 

The coloring of the skin is of chief importance, since 
the appearance of a glowing, healthful skin is most neces- 
sary to a pleasing and attractive appearance. The color- 
ing of the hair is usually of secondary importance ; that of 
the eyes, contrary to general opinion, should be the third 
consideration. This is because the areas of skin and hair 
are larger and, therefore, more conspicuous. When a hat 
is worn covering most of the hair, the eyes may gain prior- 
ity, since their relative area has been increased. 

Exceptions to this order may be made when either the 
hair or the eyes are particularly beautiful, and it is desirable 
to emphasize them above other features. Even when this 
is done, care should be taken in using colors that are be- 
coming to the skin. 

Since the skin ranks first in importance, the woman 
who wishes to increase her list of becoming colors should 

54 



Relating Colors to Skin 55 

make every attempt to improve her complexion. Revi- 
sion of one's opinion of wearable colors should be made 
frequently, according to changes in the skin produced by 
seasons or the state of health. Most women find that col- 
ors that are becoming in winter and early spring are not 
so flattering to the tanned or sunburned skin of late sum- 
mer. The list likewise changes as one becomes older, 
sometimes increasing as the hair loses color. Discreet use 
of make-up intensifying natural color, occasional change 
from warm to cool coloring with the use of violet-red 
rather than orange-red rouge or vice versa, emphasis 
given to the eyes by discreetly applied mascara or shadow 
— all these increase the list of wearable and becoming 
colors. 

Make-Up 

Powder should match background color. Powder 
should be used, not to change the color of the skin, but to 
improve its texture, remove shine, and veil imperfections. 
Powder, therefore, should match the skin as closely as 
possible in hue, intensity, and value. Powders that are too 
light, too dark, too pink, or too yellow contrast unpleas- 
antly with the natural color of the skin, revealing the pres- 
ence of the powder, which should be an inconspicuous aid 
to beauty. 

Hue of rouge should match skin. The color of rouge 
and lipstick has great influence upon the apparent coloring 
of the individual. In most instances, rouge and lipstick 
should match the hue found in the wearer's skin. A per- 
son with orange-red coloring should use orange-red rouge ; 



56 Relating Colors to Skin 

one with violet-red coloring should select rouge of that hue. 
In some instances, a slight change of hue may improve the 
individual's appearance. The person whose skin is ex- 
tremely cool in coloring, the violet-red so subdued that 
the skin has an anemic, bluish cast, may find that rouge 
more nearly a true red, or even an orange-red, will lend 
an appearance of health and vitality that violet-red rouge 
would not supply. This is, however, an exception to the 
general rule, a method that should be used only after 
careful consideration and with discretion in the applica- 
tion of the make-up. A slight change in color, a more 
red tone to match red used in the costume, slightly orange- 
red or violet-red for wear with colors of these hues, is 
frequently advisable. 

Make-up blends best with the coloring of the skin, 
giving it a softer, more transparent effect if it matches 
not only in ,hue but in value (lightness or darkness) and 
in intensity (purity, brightness, or grayness). 

Since the natural coloring is most frequently of middle 
value (neither extremely light nor extremely dark), rouge 
should likewise be of medium value. A dark rouge can 
be made to appear lighter by using it lightly, but a too-pale 
rouge fails to give the depth of naturalness of color ob- 
tained from lower values. 

Since nature softens or grays the natural coloring, a 
rouge of dulled not too-vivid intensity is most natural. 
Vivid, bright-colored rouges stand out as spots of color 
no matter how carefully they are applied or how closely 
their hue approximates the natural hue of the lips and 
cheeks. They tend to coarsen the appearance of the skin. 



Relating Colors to Skin 57 

Placement changes size and shape of face. As a general 
rule, rouge should be placed where the natural color ap- 
pears. Slight but not startling deviations from this rule 
may improve the contour of the face, making it appear 
more truly the ideal oval. If the face is broad the color 
should not extend too far out, the deepest color being near 
the nose, blended so that it fades out before the widest 
part of the face is reached. That placed slightly high 
tends to lengthen the face ; that placed low or far out seems 
to add width. If the cheek bones are prominent, rouge 
should be placed below them, the color fading out softly 
over the high point of the bone, and being most definite 
below them and slightly nearer the nose. If the color is 
too far away, too sharply removed from the high or promi- 
nent cheek bones, they become more evident by means 
of the very device meant to conceal them. Rouge on the 
tips of the ears gives additional width to the face. Placed 
at the top of a receding chin it may give this feature greater 
prominence. At the tip of the chin it shortens the face. 
A slight amount under a double chin makes a shadow that 
helps to blot out that feature. This device is effective only 
under artificial lighting — and it must be done oh, so 
subtly! 

Mouth changed by lipstic\. The expression of the 
mouth may be greatly changed by the wise use of lipstick 
and totally eradicated by the unwise use of it. If spread 
on with a thick, waxy appearance, or extended beyond the 
actual outlines of the lips, it gives a hard, unnatural ap- 
pearance to the entire face. Too-vivid color, or color dis- 
similar to the natural color of the lips, may also have this 



58 Relating Colors to Skin 

effect. Rouge so placed that the color is deepest at the 
center of the mouth, is blended out toward the edges, and 
is very faint at the ends will make the mouth seem smaller. 
Thin lips may be made to seem fuller if the color is deeper 
on the upper lip, and the division at the center is empha- 
sized by a definite outline. Applying the color beyond the 
actual outline of the lips usually defeats its purpose, which 
becomes apparent, at the same time giving a harsh, un- 
sympathetic appearance to the mouth. Lipstick is usually 
most successful when applied with the finger tips, which 
method makes a softer outline possible. 

The color is more permanent as well as more natural if 
it is applied liberally, allowed to remain on about ten min- 
utes, and then wiped off carefully. It may then be re- 
touched slightly if necessary. If the basic color approxi- 
mates the natural coloring, a more vivid lipstick may 
sometimes be successfully used for retouching. 

Devices That Affect the Color of the Face 

Emphasizing color in chcekj. The use of a color com- 
plementary to the flesh tints may increase the apparent 
amount of color in the face. The blue-greens comple- 
mentary to orange-red and violet-red hues, therefore, are 
especially becoming to persons who need to increase the 
amount of color in their face and lips. The complemen- 
tary colors bring out the color under the skin, giving a 
clear, transparent quality that is not to be obtained by the 
addition of rouge alone. 

If the skin is too florid, or if too much rouge or rouge of 
an unbecoming color is worn, the use of the complemen- 



Relating Colors to Skin 59 

tary blue-greens will increase and accentuate the color, 
coarsening the appearance of the skin. 

High and low values. The use near the face of light 
colors in the flesh tints, pale orange-red or violet-red (the 
former most becoming to the majority of persons), in- 
creases, by means of reflection, the apparent amount of 
color in the face. Thus, of these flesh tints, the warmer 
ofT-white colors are especially becoming to the woman 
who needs to increase the apparent amount of color in 
her face, and difficult for the woman with a florid skin. 
They may be used either for the entire costume or as a 
transitional color worn near the face, relieving the trying 
effect of less flattering colors. Clear, smooth skins gain 
more apparent color by reflection than do those of rough, 
cloudy texture. The woman who tends to have too much 
color in her face may find the more neutralized effects in 
these same colors more easily worn — an orange-red of 
high value but neutralized enough so that the color is no 
longer definitely orange-red but a soft tan or beige. 

White and other high values reflect light; therefore, 
they do not absorb or lessen the color of the face. All 
light colors tend to increase the color of the face, but not 
so markedly as do those in the flesh tints. Black and other 
low values absorb light, seeming to drain the color from 
the face. For this reason, they are particularly becoming 
to the florid complexion, but unbecoming to pale or yel- 
low skins. 

Vivid hues. The use of extremely vivid, intense colors 
lessens the appearance of color in the face, fading or neu- 
tralizing facial color tone by means of their greater 



6o Relating Colors to Skin 

strength. The person who is pale should be extremely 
cautious in the use of intense reds, violet-reds, or orange- 
reds and should accompany them with rouge of the right 
hue. Low and middle intensities will, in most instances, 
be more becoming. 

The person whose skin is too yellow, having too little 
of the red coloring and too much yellow pigmentation, 
should, particularly if she is dark, avoid brilliant blues, 
which will make her skin seem flagrantly yellow. 

The reflection from yellow worn near the face likewise 
increases the apparent amount of yellow in the skin. 
Vivid yellows are unbecoming to the person who has too 
much of this color in her skin, as they make this hue con- 
spicuous both by repetition and reflection. 

Minimizing yellow in the face. The use of colors analo- 
gous to yellow, especially orange and red-orange, lessens 
the apparent amount of yellow in the skin. The red in 
these colors reflects red into the face, while the yellow 
blends with the coloring of the skin, making the yellow- 
ness of the skin inconspicuous. Persons with dark skin 
containing considerable yellow pigmentation find the red- 
orange range particularly becoming. Fairer persons with 
too much yellow in the skin sometimes find that the yel- 
low-green and green range likewise lessens the amount of 
yellow in their skin. The further removed from yellow 
and the more green in the hue, the less conspicuous be- 
comes the yellow in the skin. 

Sallowness, which is an unhealthy yellow pigmentation 
in the skin, is increased in effect when neutral colors of 



Relating Colors to Skin 61 

value similar to the skin are worn. Light grays and tans, 
therefore, are particularly difficult for the person whose 
skin has too much yellow and too little red coloring. 
These neutral shades afford insufficient contrast, giving a 
monotonous appearance and emphasizing the lack of life 
in the skin. 

Shadows in the face, circles under the eyes, and other 
unhealthy hues showing in the skin are emphasized by 
the use of complementary colors, sometimes by reflection 
of color. Frequently there is no actual discoloration of 
the skin, but the hollows take on the dark, usually violet 
color common to shadowed surfaces. Vivid greens, yel- 
low-greens, and yellow are likely to cast violet or blue 
shadows, the complementary afterimage being thrown on 
the face. Reflection of color from vivid violets and blues, 
sometimes from green, may throw these colors into the 
face, particularly into hollows or lines in the face. Shiny- 
surfaced fabrics are more likely to produce this result. 

Devices That Change Becomingness of Colors 

Light values near face. The use of white, of off-whites, 
or of other light values near the face gives a relief from 
extremely vivid intensities or from hues that force yellow 
or other undesirable tinges in the skin. Pearl, ivory, or 
other light beads frequently give this value contrast. Soft 
flesh tints, subdued red-orange or red-violet, are particu- 
larly effective used as value contrasts near the face. Gray 
and beige and lighter tints of the color used in the body 
of the costume are likewise good. It is notable that light 



62 Relating Colors to Skin 

colors, which might be unbecoming if used in entirety 
for the costume, may make a most effective contrast if used 
as a relief from darker or more vivid colors. 

Decolletage softens unbecoming colors. The expanse 
of flesh showing, when an evening gown with low-cut 
neckline and no sleeves is worn, separates the face from 
unbecoming colors. For this reason, many women are 
able to use colors for formal wear that would be exceed- 
ingly trying for more informal occasions, even under 
kindly artificial lights. Black, which may absorb the 
delicate color from the face when worn near it, may ac- 
cent delicate coloring when used in a decollete gown. 

Dar\ value near face. A small note of black or other 
dark-value contrast used near the face may increase the 
becomingness of light colors. This is particularly true in 
the case of light neutral tones. Persons with rather light, 
drab coloring, with no decided value contrast, find the use 
of dark accents near the face especially helpful. A dark 
hat or a dark note in a necklace, earrings, a brooch, a 
flower, a collar, or a scarf may give the individual the em- 
phasis needed to permit her to wear light, bright, or neu- 
tral colors. A fur scarf or cape may sometimes supply the 
dark accent necessary to make an otherwise difficult color 
becoming. 

Color contrast near face lends vitality. No other fac- 
tor is more effective than color contrast in making the face 
the center of interest in the composition created by the 
costume and the individual. Wisely chosen color accent 
will enhance the coloring of the wearer, making the eyes 



Relating Colors to Skin 63 

look darker and more colorful; the hair brighter; and the 
skin clearer, with more pleasing flesh tints. The indi- 
vidual who wishes to wear a color that she knows to be 
unbecoming may frequently use it effectively by com- 
bining it with one of the colors that she knows to be 
actively becoming. Earrings, necklaces, brooches, brace- 
lets, and other items of costume jewelry serve as most 
useful and convenient methods of introducing becoming 
color accents near the face. Flowers and scarfs are also 
recommended. 

Many women who have learned to dress distinctively 
and becomingly choose simple clothes of good lines to 
serve as a background for jewelry or other accessories of 
colors that they know to be flattering. They frequently 
invest a fairly large proportion of their clothing budget 
in accessories of more or less permanent value. 

Textures change effect of colors. Textures have great 
influence on the becomingness of colors. Intense vivid 
colors are more becoming, less likely to overshadow the 
personality of the wearer, if they are used in soft, dull- 
surfaced fabrics. On the other hand, dark colors — par- 
ticularly black, which tends to absorb color from the 
face — will be more becoming in a lustrous material like 
velvet. Extremely shiny fabrics like satin, however, 
make almost all colors more difficult to wear, as they 
reflect light into the face, showing up its imperfections 
much as any strong light would. Satins are least trying 
when they reflect a soft, warm light increasing the flesh 
tints. Rosy beiges and warm ofT-whites are more be- 



64 Relating Colors to Skin 

coming than most other colors when in shiny-surfaced 
materials. As black absorbs light, black satin reflects less 
than other satins. It is much less trying than a dead 
white, which reflects all light. 

Shiny textures, both by the light they reflect upon the 
skin and by contrast with their own smooth surfaces, em- 
phasize imperfections in the skin. Shiny surfaces, there- 
fore, should be relieved by the use of duller textures near 
the face, just as dark colors or those of vivid intensity are 
relieved by light values and more neutralized intensities. 

Furs and velvets are usually flattering. Their lustrous, 
soft textures have life and animation, but do not reflect 
light on the face as do smooth, hard surfaces. Women 
who find both black and brown unbecoming in dull 
fabrics can usually wear one of these colors in furs. 

Coloring changed by hats. Colors worn above the face, 
especially those worn in hats covering the hair, change the 
apparent coloring of the wearer in a most perceptible man- 
ner. A dark hat may give needed emphasis to an indi- 
vidual whose personal coloring is monotonous, too nearly 
one tone, and without decided value contrast between hair 
and skin. A hat in a warm color may increase the ap- 
parent warmth, reflecting warm lights into the skin. A 
hat of a cool color, reflecting its color into cool eyes, makes 
the eyes more prominent, thereby changing the individ- 
ual's apparent coloring. It may at the same time intensify 
flesh tints by complementary contrast. No one should 
.decide definitely that she can or cannot wear a color until 
she has tried it with light and dark hats, and until she has 
tried to wear the color itself in a hat. 



Relating Colors to Skin 65 

Flattering Colors Best in Case of Doubt 

The individual whose complexion is poor, and who is 
uncertain as to the effect of colors upon her appearance, 
does well to choose from a list of generally becoming col- 
ors. This includes largely dark and definitely grayed or 
softened colors, dark blue, especially a grayed blue, dark 
green, dark blue-green, dark red, violet-red and orange- 
red (the latter including browns, particularly so-called 
red-browns), dark warm gray or taupe, and black. Light 
tints, also in softened intensities, include white and more 
particularly warm off-whites, lighter blue-greens, and 
orange-reds. 

Certain colors, most of them extremely vivid, are unbe- 
coming to all but a few fortunate persons with flawless 
complexion and unusually pleasing coloring. Even to 
persons who can wear them they are seldom as flattering 
as less difficult colors. This list includes bright vivid 
blues, particularly in light or medium values; bright 
blue-violet, violet, and red- violet; and bright yellow and 
orange. 

Colored nail polish or enamel should be definitely re- 
lated to the color of the make-up. When bright finger- 
nails are worn they are almost always more successful if 
they match the lipstick. When paler, but definitely col- 
ored nail polish is worn, it may repeat the cheek rouge. 

Magenta or violet-red fingernails will clash with red or 
orange-red lipstick. A coloring definitely unrelated to 
the natural coloring of finger tips or lips may occasionally 
be chosen to repeat some accent in the dress. 



66 Relating Colors to Skin 

Brightly colored fingernails look well only on perfectly 
groomed, well-shaped hands. The tiniest flaw or chip in 
the enamel should not be permitted. It is said that long, 
conspicuous fingernails are worn to show the world that 
their owner belongs to the leisured class and has the time 
and money to keep them perfect. Whether or not this is 
a good reason for the fashion of brilliant fingernails is 
immaterial; as long as every woman wearing them makes 
certain that they are becoming to her hands, and that she 
can keep them in perfect repair, either by removing the 
bright polish when the tiniest flaw appears or by repairing 
the damage skillfully until the nails can be done over. 

Unless the hands are beautiful in shape and in skin 
texture, the nails are small shaped and of smooth texture, 
colorless or very light rose polish is most becoming. 
Some well-groomed women have remained faithful to 
the simple natural polish obtained from a dry powder care- 
fully rubbed to a polish with a buffer. Some beauty 
parlors report that this fashion" is returning even among 
the less conservative women who have used the brighter 
polish for the last five or ten years. 

Conspicuous fingernails may make the hands more no- 
ticeable than the face. This is seldom desirable, for the 
face should be the center of interest. A few women with 
beautiful hands and plain faces may deliberately wish to 
emphasize their hands so that they will attract attention to 
their best feature. If the individual has even a gleam of 
intelligence to give interest to her face, she need not feel 
that her hands are or should be more important. Bright 
nails matching bright lipstick may give interest to both 
face and hands. 



CHAPTER VI 



atu 




ta tki 



^racc and C^ue& 



7 he effect of colors upon the hair and eyes should be 
carefully considered, even though these points should 
be subordinated to that of selecting colors becoming to 
the skin. 

The person with a slender and well-proportioned figure, 
who need not fear increasing her size or emphasizing her 
silhouette and who has a clear, healthy complexion, can 
wear almost any beautiful color. She may consider her 
eyes and hair first, emphasizing whichever is the more at- 
tractive feature. Occasionally, persons with unusually 
beautiful hair or eyes can afford to wear colors enhancing 
their most distinctive feature, even at the expense of figure 
or complexion, although never if it pronouncedly magni- 
fies a defect. 

The Hair 

Improved luster of hair emphasizes color. The actual 
color of the hair can best be enhanced by care, which in- 

6 7 



68 Relating Colors to Hair and Eyes 

creases its luster, the lights reflected by shining hair giving 
it added beauty of color. Massage and brushing, careful 
shampooing with complete rinsing out of the soap, the 
use of a mildly acid rinse — such as lemon, vinegar, or tar- 
taric acid, which restores the natural acidity of the hair — 
aids in achieving brilliance and luster. 

Changing the actual color of the hair is likely to create 
unnatural contrasts with the coloring of eyes, eyelashes, 
and eyebrows; and with the skin, giving a harsh, coarsened 
appearance to the wearer. This is not always the case, the 
question being largely one of personal taste, together with 
the difficulty of altering the hair without seriously injur- 
ing its texture. Many dyes not only injure the hair but 
also affect the skin and general health of the individual. 
Bluing may safely be used to whiten the hair. Henna is 
not injurious, but usually produces an unnatural orange 
color. 

Enhancing color of the hair, - The hair may be made to 
appear brighter and more colorful if the opposite or com- 
plementary color is worn. Yellow hair will seem more 
golden, a more decided yellow, if a blue costume is worn. 
Yellow-orange hair will seem more colorful if the blue- 
greens are used as a foil. The so-called red hair, which 
is actually orange or red-orange, is frequently cheapened 
by the decided contrast with its complementary color, but 
brown hair, the darker value and more neutralized inten- 
sity in red-orange hued hair, may gain needed life and 
vitality. The entire range of cool colors — blue-violet, 
sometimes violet, blue, blue-greens and green — may be 



Relating Colors to Hair and Eyes 69 

used to complement yellow and red-orange hair. The 
hue most becoming to the individual's skin, hair, and eyes 
should be chosen. 

Intensity and value as well as hue should be carefully 
considered. A vivid intensity may coarsen the wearer's 
coloring; a neutralized intensity of the same color may 
greatly enhance it. A vivid blue may perceptibly brighten 
yellow hair, but, at the same time, make the skin unduly 
yellow, while blue eyes might appear faded by contrast. 

Value contrasts give emphasis to hair. Particular care 
must be taken that the value is not so similar to the 
dominant values in the coloring of the wearer that a 
monotonous effect is created. Special care must be taken 
in the case of blondes, in which type the natural coloring 
is all of high value. If the dominant color of the costume 
is of light value, a dark value may be introduced as an 
accent. 

If the value of the colors used in the costume are either 
lighter or darker than that of the hair, the latter gains in 
character and distinction. Values similar to that of the 
hair are likely to make it seem dull and insignificant. 
This is especially true when the same hue or one closely 
analogous to that of the hair is used. Attempting to 
match the hair is usually a mistake, unless one desires to 
subdue its color, as in the case of so-called red hair, which 
may look softer and more harmonious when blended in 
the color scheme by means of a matching or closely allied 
hue in a value similar to that of the hair. 

Contrast in value is especially necessary with gray hair; 



70 Relating Colors to Hair and Eyes 

it is imperative with hair that is turning gray and has as- 
sumed that greenish, muddy look, resulting from a mix- 
ture of gray and darker hairs. 

Warm, vivid, analogous colors fade hair. Analogous 
colors that are slightly warmer in hue and more vivid 
in intensity make the hair seem faded by contrast. A 
bright yellow garment with hair less yellow and bright 
overshadows the yellow in the hair. In the same way, 
brown hair with brown apparel that is slightly more red, 
richer and more vivid in tone, loses by proximity to the 
more forceful color. This is particularly true if the tex- 
ture is finer and more lustrous than that of the hair. Fine 
furs with a warm reddish brown coloring frequently make 
the hair appear faded. 

On the other hand, colors slightly less vivid, slightly less 
warm than the hair, enhance the color of the hair. Con- 
trast of value 1 will intensify this effect. A popular actress 
with colorful brown hair frequently wears a light dull 
brown, definitely several shades lighter and of a hue more 
neutralized and slightly less red than that of her hair. 
As a result, the beauty of her hair is accented. 

The Eyes 

Make-up alters size and color of eyes. Eye make-up 
may deepen the color of the eyes, increase their apparent 
size, and make them look more vital and alert; or it may 
make them look hard and coldly expressionless. Much 
more care is needed for the successful use of eye make-up 
in the daytime than for wear in the evening under arti- 
ficial lights. Many experts advise that it be reserved en- 



Relating Colors to Hair and Eyes 71 

tirely for evening use. Women who must wear glasses 
frequently find that eye make-up does much to counteract 
their unbecoming effect. When glasses are worn, make- 
up may be used in the daytime. 

Although darkening the eyelashes increases their ef- 
fectiveness as a frame for the eyes, making the lashes 
seem thicker and longer and the color of the eyes deeper, 
they should not be made markedly darker than the color 
of the hair. Persons with blonde or light brown hair 
should use dark brown, not black, on their eyelashes. 
Many experts advise dark brown eye make-up for all ex- 
cept the person with inky, blue-black hair. Eye pencil 
may be used to give a faint outline at the base of the lashes 
as well as to darken the eyebrows. Care should be taken 
not to darken the skin, only the eyebrows. 

Colored eye shadow, green in tone for green eyes, blue 
for blue, blue-green for those of this hue, dark brown for 
brown eyes, may be applied discreetly to the lids. If used 
so that it gives just a faint suggestion of color, it will 
deepen the apparent color of the eyes, making them seem 
larger and brighter. Violet eye-shadow, supplementing 
the color of nature's shadows, may give becoming depth 
to the eyes. 

Eyes accented by matching hue. The color of the eyes 
may be greatly intensified by the repetition of their hue in 
the costume, the liquid depth of the eye acting as a mirror 
to reflect color. The color must be carefully controlled, 
however, and used either in small areas or with partially 
neutralized intensities. A dress in a vivid color of the 
same hue as the eyes, say, a bright blue dress, will make 



72 Relating Colors to Hair and Eyes 

even very blue eyes seem pale, characterless, and dull by 
contrast; but a small area of this same vivid color would 
accent the blue of the eyes. A dress of soft grayed blue or 
one in a low value would not overpower the color of the 
eyes. The same is true of green. With brown, there is 
little danger of submerging the color of the eyes, as this 
color is naturally of a lower value and of a more neu- 
tralized intensity. 

Often the apparent hue of the eyes may be changed by 
the colors worn. Gray eyes, which usually are not a 
totally neutral gray but green or blue, may be made to 
appear of a definite color, blue, green, or sometimes violet, 
by the use of these colors. 

Intensifying color of the eyes. The use of a hue com- 
plementary to that of the eyes may also increase their ap- 
parent color. Yellow, orange, and red-orange, used either 
in the entire costume or in accents, may increase the col- 
oring of eyes in the cool-color range as much as would a 
repetition of their coloring. 

Blue-green apparel frequently makes blue eyes more 
green, or vice versa, giving a subtle, interesting hue to 
the eyes. Gold flecks in gray eyes may become apparent 
when orange is worn, while this hue in hazel eyes is very 
markedly accented. Hazel eyes frequently become gray 
when gray or cool colors are worn. 

Since the skin is the first consideration in the selection 
of colors worn, and the hair of second importance, the 
eyes should be emphasized by the method most becoming 
to the skin and hair. Persons with skin of warm coloring 
and eyes of cool color may find that the orange tones are 



Relating Colors to Hair and Eyes 73 

best, both for the skin and as a complement to the eyes. 
Persons with fair hair, cool skin, and brown or hazel eyes 
frequently find that the cool colors enhance hair, skin, and 
eyes. 



M 



CHAPTER VII 

cz^uJLlvl Jibuti y^aLatuia 

fosT women possess the happy faculty of overlooking 
the defects of face and figure that they see daily and 
never actually observe. This habit precludes their always 
appearing at their best. A periodical analysis of a wom- 
an's ever-changing coloring will permit her to choose cos- 
tume colors wisely. 

The hue of background and foreground should be 
noted, as this gives an indication of colors that should be 
avoided and those that are likely to proye becoming. Ac- 
tual colors in variations of hue, value, and intensity should 
then be tried on, first, under a clear natural light, then 
under artificial lights, so that colors that are becoming 
under both conditions may be determined. 

The effect of each color upon skin, hair, and eyes should 
be noted. One should not be content to say that blue is 
becoming, but to determine which blue is most becoming 
— blue, blue-green, or violet-blue. Whether light, middle, 
or low values of this blue do most to enhance the coloring 
of the individual should also be determined. Likewise, 
can the individual wear all intensities ? Which does she 

74 



Critical Analysis of Individual Coloring 75 

wear best ? These questions should be asked with regard 
to every hue, value, and intensity, and in relation to shiny 
and dull surfaces, which reflect color upon the skin or ab- 
sorb color reflected from it. 

A list of the colors most becoming in daytime, those 
most pleasing in street shades, for general daytime or after- 
noon wear, should be made. The most flattering colors, 
those that are wearable but do not greatly enhance the ap- 
pearance of the individual, and those that should not be 
worn because they detract from the charm of the individ- 
ual or emphasize her defects, should all be noted. Color 
combinations as well as separate hues should be consid- 
ered. A woman having such a list of colors, the result of 
an analysis made by other persons, should be able to select 
colors for herself almost as well as another person could 
do it, for the list gives her the eyes of the critical observer. 

The rating scale for color readings. The chart, pages 
78, 79, for color readings has been planned so that little if 
any writing is required. Checks should serve to indicate 
both the coloring of the individual and the colors that may 
and may not be worn. This rating scale necessarily has 
those limitations imposed by black-and-white print. For 
this reason, it should be used in conjunction with the color 
plate showing the basic hues found in lips and cheeks and 
in the background skin tones, and the major hues that 
should be considered in their relation to the costume. 

If possible, color readings should always be given with 
actual samples of colored material. It is desirable that 
fabrics of each hue be used in three values and in three in- 
tensities of each value. This means that a set of samples 



y6 Critical Analysis of Individual Coloring 

for professional or classroom use should include 9 varia- 
tions of each of the 18 hues listed. For personal use, a 
woman may experiment, first, among those colors sug- 
gested in the chapters on color types as usually most be- 
coming to her own type. Colored papers, obtainable at 
any school or artist's supply store, will give basic colors 
and their scientific color names. 

S\in tones. The hue of the lips and cheeks may be de- 
termined by holding the color plate directly against the 
face, comparing the coloring of the cheeks and lips, first, 
with orange-red, then with red, then with violet-red. In 
many instances, the hue will be found to be between two 
of these hues, in which case a check may be placed be- 
tween them rather than directly after them. If the color- 
ing is naturally vivid, a check will be made under definite ; 
if it is faint, the check will be under subdued ; while aver- 
age coloring will be indicated under medium. This point 
may likewise be made more flexible by placing the checks 
at intermediate points rather than definitely under one of 
the three. 

The colors shown on the color plate may be held against 
either the forehead or the neck, the hue of the background 
skin tones being most evident at these points. The 
amount of yellow in the skin is particularly important, 
since a predominance of yellow gives an unhealthy tone. 
Sometimes yellow is sufficiently grayed to appear almost 
green-yellow, in which case a check might be made above 
yellow where green-yellow would appear if included on 
this chart (it has been omitted because the skin is not 
actually green-yellow, but, rather, a grayed-yellow). 



Critical Analysis of Individual Coloring 77 

Color-and-line analysis should be severely honest, un- 
complimentary in case of doubt, rather than flattering. 
If the skin is rated as having slightly more yellow than it 
actually possesses, it will be easier not to prescribe colors 
that will accent the yellow in the skin. 

Persons unused to analyzing the skin may at first have 
some difficulty in distinguishing between clearness and 
transparency. The terms clear, medium, and cloudy 
are used here to indicate skins that are free from blemishes, 
scars, or similar imperfections, while the terms transpar- 
ent, medium, and opaque relate to the thickness of the 
skin; to the extent to which undertones of bright color 
seem to show through the outer skin. Skin, obviously, 
may be clear or free from imperfections and yet not be 
transparent. 

Color and texture of hair. When analyzing the hair, 
it is necessary to distinguish between the color of the hair 
and its texture. After determining the actual hue, one 
must judge, first, whether it is light or dark, which is easy 
to determine ; then the intensity, whether it is bright, me- 
dium, or grayed, which is somewhat more difficult, since 
many people are prone to judge the hair as bright when 
there is definitely a bright colorful sheen. The hair might 
be what we usually call brown, yet have colorful high 
lights. We would check the brown hair as red-orange, 
but we must not make the mistake of checking it as bright, 
which would indicate that the hair was so-called red 
rather than brown. Brown hair of this character would 
actually be of medium intensity. Its texture would un- 
questionably be bright. A so-called red head might have 



yS Critical Analysis of Individual Coloring 



RATING SCALE FOR COLOR READING 

LIPS AND CHEEKS 



Hues 


Definite 


Medium 


Subdued 


O A 








Red 

























BACKGROUND SKIN TONES 



Hues 


Light 


Medium 


Dark 


Yellow 
































D ^ n £ c 

















TEXTURE OF SKIN 



Clear 


Medium 


Cloudy 


Transparent 


Medium 


Opaque 



HAIR 



Hues 


Value of Color 


Intensity of Color 


Texture 


Light 


Medi- 
um 


Dark 


Vivid 


Medi- 
um 


Grayed 


Bright 


Medi- 
um 


Dull 


r 11 




















Yellow 




























































p r j £ c 








































White 



































































































EYES 



Huts 


Value of Color 


Intensity of Color 


Luster 




Light 


Medi- 
um 


Dark 


Vivid 


Medi- 
um 


Grayed 


Bright 


Medi- 
um 


Dull 






















Blue 





































































































Critical Analysis of Individual Coloring 79 



HUES IN RELATION TO NATURAL COLORING OF INDIVIDUAL 






Huu 


Value of Color 


Intensity of Color 


Rating of Color 




Light 


Medi- 
um 


Dark 


Bright 


Medi- 
um 


Grayed 


Be- 
coming 


Wear- 
able 


Unbe- 
coming 


Yellow 
























































































































Red 
























































































































Blue 













































































































































red-orange or, perhaps, orange hair of bright intensity. 
Its texture might be dull, medium, or bright. 

Eyes. Eyes must likewise be judged according to their 
hue, value, intensity, and natural brilliance. 

Cautions. When giving color readings, it is desirable 
to analyze the coloring, first, in its natural state without 
any make-up whatsoever, then to experiment with make- 
up until the most pleasing effect has been obtained. 
Rouge of the natural hue should be applied; but, since 
slight differences in hue sometimes make vast differences 
in becomingness, it is often worth while to apply and then 
remove several different rouges until the most becoming 
one has been found. A powder blended to match the 
natural background hue of the skin should likewise be 
applied before the samples of color are tried on. Unless 
the individual is intending to adopt new make-up per- 
manently, it is best to try the colors on her as she usually 
appears. It is very unsatisfactory to use a larger quantity 



8o Critical Analysis of Individual Coloring 

of make-up or more vivid coloring than the individual 
will herself adopt. 

When studying one's own coloring, it is well to re- 
member that a mirror tends to neutralize coloring, by 
adding a bluish tinge, thus making the coloring appear 
slightly colder or more violet than it actually is. Study of 
the color in the finger tips aids in determining the actual 
color of the cheeks, since the two are closely akin. The 
color inside the wrist and of the back of the hand gives an 
indication of the background coloring of the neck and 
forehead. Personal analysis made by the aid of mirrors 
and inspection of the hands should be checked with a 
careful study made by another person. 

A Few Becoming Hues Preferable to 
Many Dubious Colors 

Many persons are discouraged by the fact that a careful 
color reading seems to limit their list of truly becoming 
colors. For this reason, colors are classified as becoming, 
wearable, and unbecoming. If the color reading is made 
with strict honesty, the individual should find the colors 
listed as becoming very definitely flattering. These are 
the colors that should form the basis of the wardrobe and 
that should be worn, not only on those occasions when the 
individual is making a special effort to appear at her best, 
but when she is tired, ill, or otherwise in need of colors 
that will improve her appearance. Wearable colors may 
be worn when she is physically at her best and has less 
need of flattering colors, or when she definitely feels the 
necessity of wearing a color not usually included in her 
wardrobe. 



CHAPTER VIII 



'"Trom analyses of the colors becoming to a large num 
c=>^ ber of individuals, general rules pertaining to the col- 
ors becoming to types may be formed. These rules are 
helpful as an indication of colors that may be tried on the 
individual, but should be used in conjunction with per- 
sonal analysis and critical judgment of each color and its 
effect upon the appearance. 

Hue of skin determines colors. Much more helpful 
than classifying persons as blondes or brunettes, which 
takes into consideration only the value of the hair, some- 
times of the skin, is that of terming them of either cool or 
warm coloring, according to the actual hue of their skin. 
Those with violet-red in cheeks and lips are said to have 
cool coloring, and those with orange-red to have warm 
coloring. This classification aids in selecting colors. As 
a general rule, persons with cool coloring wear cool colors 
to best advantage — blues, greens, blue-greens, blue-violets, 
violet, and red-violet ; persons with warm hues appear best 
in warm colors — reds, oranges, and yellows. 

81 



82 Colors for Individuals of Cool Coloring 

Drab or Neutral Blonde Needs Color Accent 

The pale, colorless blonde, sometimes spoken of as the 
drab blonde because her coloring is neutral and uninter- 
esting, needs the aid of color in her costume, yet her choice 
is limited by the weakness of her own coloring. Her 
complexion is dull, neutral, dead-looking, lifeless, even 
when carefully made up. Skin and hair of the pale or 
sallow blonde are of nearly the same value and hue; her 
eyes, while showing contrast of hue, are frequently similar 
in value. She should wear colors that are slightly stronger, 
more forceful, than her own coloring, but should avoid 
those that are so much more characterful that they over- 
power her coloring. She must seek colors that will bring 
out flesh tints without emphasizing the yellow in her skin, 
that will reflect color into her eyes and give life to her 
hair. She usually finds the cool hues — green, blue-green, 
blue, blue-violet — her most becoming colors. Sometimes, 
if there are no dark tinges in her skin, she may wear violet 
and red-violet. Even the cool colors must be of lower 
intensity, as vivid ones increase the yellow in her skin and 
contrast unfavorably with her neutral coloring. Medium 
and dark values, or those that are very light, higher in 
value than her own light coloring, are best, for the pale 
blonde needs value contrast. If light colors are worn, a 
dark accent near the face may supply sufficient contrast 
to make them interesting. A dark hat may so change the 
apparent coloring of the individual that she may wear 
more definite and forceful color than she could without 
it. Too much dark color, as a dark dress and hat, will 



Colors for Individuals of Cool Coloring 83 

drain all color from the face unless used in conjunction 
with a light color worn near the face. 

While the drab blonde should avoid neutral colors, she 
may occasionally find a neutral accented with a small 
vivid note of cool color wearable. Grays, though difficult 
if her complexion is muddy, are preferable to tans, which 
too closely approximate both the hue and the value of 
her hair. 

If the pale blonde wears warm colors, they should be 
greatly subdued or cooled. Soft rose shades, red, and 
orange-red may serve to give her some of the warmth she 
lacks, reflecting some of the color into her face. Dark, 
warm colors, as dark red, may be becoming, especially if 
white is used near the face. The pale blonde, however, 
usually finds that the cool colors do the most for her, 
giving warmth to her hair and skin, while intensifying 
the color of her eyes. 

Colorful Blonde Permitted More Colors 

The blonde with golden hair and more vivid coloring 
in her cheeks, less yellow or neutral-colored skin, has a 
much more simple problem than has the drab blonde. 
She has fewer defects to overcome, more points to em- 
phasize. There is less danger of colors overshadowing 
her own coloring and further subduing her personality. 
She should, however, strive for colors that will emphasize 
her delicacy of coloring — too strong, too vivid colors will 
destroy this quality, her greatest charm. She also finds 
the cool colors most becoming, but she may wear them 
in less subdued intensities. She finds dark values, even 



8 4 



Colors for Individuals of Cool Coloring 



<-> 

1 

8 
-S5 

1 


Blue-black hair, fair skin 
with violet-red coloring, cool 
dark blue, green or gray eyes. 
Contrast of dark hair and fair 
skin most striking charac- 
teristic. 


Violet-red rouge of com- 
paratively dark value, darker 
than that worn by cool 
blonde types, may be fairly 
vivid in intensity. Frequent- 
ly absence of rouge on a pale 
skin pleasingly emphasizes 
fairness. 


More vivid cool colors 
than are permitted blonde 
and partially neutralized 
warm colors both successful. 
Vivid greens, blue-greens, 
blue, and all violets are good 
especially in middle and 
darker values. Red, red- 
orange, orange, and yellow, 
neither too vivid nor too dull, 


s 


Vivid yellow or yellow- 
orange hair, fair skin with 
clear violet-red coloring in 
lips and cheeks. Cool, blue, 
green or gray coloring in 
eyes, usually deeper in tone 
than in drab blonde. 


Violet-red rouge and lip- 
stick as nearly as possible 
matching hue and value of 
natural coloring. Dark 
brown, not black mascara. 
Faint eye shadow in hue of 
eyes possible at night. 


Colors of light to dark 
values more vivid than those 
of the drab blonde, but 
grayed or softened should be 
worn. Cool colors are best, 
blue- violet, blue, blue-greens, 
and greens. Red- violet, red 
and red -orange are good. 
Yellow, if exactly matching 


cq 

1 

Si 
v. 

1 


Hair and skin of dull neu- 
tralized yellow of light and 
nearly same values. Pale lips 
and cheeks of grayed violet- 
red . Eyes of cool , frequently 
pale, colors, blue, green, 
gray. 


Violet-red rouge, slightly 
more intense and darker than 
natural coloring usually best. 
Occasionally a soft dull red 
or orange-red may be recom- 
mended. Dark brown mas- 
cara. Eye shadow, to match 
eyes, may be used at night. 


Colors of soft grayed char- 
acter, just slightly more vivid 
than that of the wearer, most 
becoming. Cool colors, soft 
pale and fairly dark grayed 
greens, blue-greens, blue, and 
blue-violet excellent. Much 
neutralized reds, red-orange, 
in pale, middle, or dark val- 




Description of 

Personal Coloring 

of Each Type 


Make-up Most 

Effective with 

Personal 

Coloring 


Actively Becoming 
Colors Enhancing 
Personal Coloring 



Colors for Individuals of Cool Coloring 



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86 Colors for Individuals of Cool Coloring 

black, contrasting favorably with her vivid, golden, blonde 
coloring and emphasizing her charm. Blondes with 
warm coloring wear the warm colors more successfully 
than the colorless blondes; they may even wear fairly 
vivid reds without totally submerging their personality, 
but usually they will find the cooler colors more flattering. 
The violet-reds, being cooler than red or orange-red, are 
frequently more becoming than the latter hues. 

There is, of course, no sharp division between the drab 
and the vivid blonde, there being many variations of the 
two broad classifications. Some individuals might even 
change from one to another, according to their health, age, 
or make-up. The dictum that the more definite the col- 
oring of the blonde the more vivid and the more warm 
the colors she may wear successfully should serve merely 
as an indication of the colors each individual may wear. 

Cool, Dark Type Wears More Forceful Colors 

The cool, dark type, the so-called brunette who has 
blue-black hair, a fair skin with violet-red coloring, and 
eyes of cool color, possesses an attractive contrast of col- 
oring, which permits her far greater freedom in her choice 
of colors than that enjoyed by either the drab or the vivid 
blonde. She, too, however, appears best in cool colors, 
which make her eyes appear deeper and emphasize the 
blue lights in her hair and the coolness of her skin. She 
may, however, wear cool colors in vivid intensities, colors 
so forceful that they would destroy the delicate coloring of 
the blonde. Vivid greens and blues, as well as those of 
lower value, are vastly becoming. Pale, delicate colors, 



Colors for Individuals of Cool Coloring 87 

on the other hand, coarsen the coloring of the individual. 
The violet range is particularly becoming to women of 
this type. Warm colors neutralized to some degree are 
more becoming to the cool, dark type than to the blonde ; 
but the cool colors emphasize her distinctive coloring, ac- 
centing the difference between her type and that of the 
warm-colored brunette. 

The person with cool, dark coloring wears neutral col- 
ors well, both the tans and grays being becoming, particu- 
larly if used with accent of vivid color. Black and white, 
repeating the light-and-dark value contrast of her hair 
and skin, are particularly effective. Other value contrasts, 
particularly those formed of cool colors, are flattering to 
this type. 



CHAPTER IX 




a* 



s a general rule, persons with warm coloring should 
wear warm colors in their costumes. Warm colors 
will be more becoming than cool colors, warm beiges more 
becoming than those of cooler appearance, warm grays 
more pleasing than cool ones. If cool colors are used they 
should be neutralized or grayed, so that their coldness is 
softened, made less strikingly cool, and given a suggestion 
of warmth. Low values, further submerging the cool 
character, will also make them more becoming to persons 
of warm coloring. 

The use of warm colors as accents, especially if placed 
near the face, will aid in making cool colors becoming 
and will increase the effectiveness of black and neutrals. 

As with other types, greater liberty in the use of color 
is permitted if the skin is clear and healthy in appearance. 

These general rules must be used in conjunction with 
analysis of the individual's coloring: consideration of her 
type of warm coloring as well as study of her specific color 
problems. 

There are two decidedly different groups of women 

88 



Colors Becoming to Those of Warm Coloring 89 

with warm coloring. Those with so-called red hair com- 
prise one group, their vivid red-orange hair; light, but 
creamy-yellow skin background; and the orange-red in 
their lips and cheeks making their coloring predominantly 
warm, whether their eyes are cool or warm. Persons 
whose hair is termed brown (in reality a more subdued 
or neutralized red-orange), with flesh tints of orange-red, 
and an orange or yellow-orange background coloring give 
an impression of warmth that is intensified if the eyes are 
brown. The latter group may be again divided into those 
types with vivid coloring — the vivid brunette — and those 
with soft olive skins. 

Colors for the Red-Haired Types 

Red-haired types are the most definitely warm in col- 
oring, because their coloring is of purer intensity. Be- 
cause of the very vividness of their own coloring, they 
have a limited range of becoming colors. Warm colors, 
unless greatly subdued, clash violently with the red-orange 
hair, cheapening its hue. Red-violet is particularly diffi- 
cult, and reds are almost equally disastrous, although oc- 
casionally neutralized intensities in very light or very dark 
values may be permissible, if not advisable. Red-orange, 
orange, yellow-orange, and yellow, which range, of course, 
includes the beiges and browns that are neutralized in- 
tensities of these hues, blend and harmonize with the col- 
oring of the red-headed individual. Well-chosen colors 
of this range, in darker values and duller intensities, enrich 
the color of the hair, making it seem brighter by contrast, 
but at the same time making it less strikingly conspicuous, 



90 Colors Becoming to Those of Warm Coloring 

more a part of the color composition created by the cos- 
tume and the coloring of the wearer. The too-florid or 
too-yellow skin may also be subdued, made to seem clearer 
and of a more pleasing color, by the use of hues analogous 
to those of the skin and hair. 

When the wearer desires to accentuate the red-orange 
coloring of her hair, she may actually increase its apparent 
redness and, at the same time, add to the effect of color 
in her cheeks by the use of blues, blue-greens, and greens, 
which are opposite in character and complementary to her 
own coloring. Very bright, vivid red hair usually be- 
comes harsh and ordinary in color when intensified by 
complementary contrasts. Dull, drab red hair and pale 
skin may, on the other hand, gain life and sparkle from 
complementary contrasts. If the skin is inclined to be 
yellow, intense cool colors, particularly blue, should be 
avoided. 

A combination of warm and cool colors, as a dress of 
brown with an accent of blue-green, or a dress of a cool 
color with an accent of warm color, as blue with a yellow 
or orange accent, is likely to be particularly becoming to 
the blue-eyed, red-haired person. 

Black, which absorbs color, may be effectively used to 
subdue the too florid coloring that sometimes accompanies 
red hair. It, at the same time, emphasizes the red hair, 
the contrast throwing it into relief but tending to make it 
appear more golden than red. 

Off-whites, as creamy-yellow white, are much more be- 
coming than pure white to persons with definitely warm 
coloring, as these shades blend with the warm tones of the 



Colors Becoming to Those of Warm Coloring 91 

skin and hair. The warmer off-white shades, those with 
subdued orange and red-orange coloring, may be es- 
pecially becoming to persons with so-called red hair. An 
accent of deeper and more vivid warm color, or a cooler 
color, may be combined with the off-white shades. 

Neutral colors are becoming to the more vivid red- 
haired types. Warm grays and beiges tend to be most 
easily worn, although women with fair, clear skin and cool 
eyes may frequently wear cool grays to advantage. A 
touch of accent in either warm or cool color usually adds 
to the wearability of neutral colors. 

Color Selections for the Vivid Brunette 

The brunette with warm, vivid coloring; dark, but dis- 
tinctly colorful hair, with coppery or red-orange lights; 
dark skin, with warm, orange and orange-red hues; and, 
frequently, with brown eyes possesses such strong forceful 
coloring that there is little danger of overpowering her 
personality by clothing of too-forceful coloring. On the 
other hand, her coloring, though vivid and forceful, is 
both darker and more subdued than that of the red-haired 
type and does not clash as easily with other colors. The 
vivid brunette can in fact wear a wider range of strong 
color than any other type, provided, of course, that her 
skin is fairly clear with no unhealthy appearing pigmen- 
tation. She should, however, avoid delicate pastel colors, 
which may make her own coloring appear coarse by con- 
trast. When high values or light colors are worn, they 
should be warm in hue. The warm off-whites, especially 
those in orange and red-orange, may form an effective con- 



92 Colors Becoming to Those of Warm Coloring 



CO 

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Subdued grayed orange- 
yellow coloring has a defi- 
nitely yellow-green cast. 
Cheeks pale with a sugges- 
tion of grayed orange-red 
coloring. Hair is dark with 
subdued red-orange lights. 
Eyes usually dark and warm. 


Dark, orange-red lipstick 
of subdued intensity with 
little if any rouge is most 
effective. The use of both 
changes the type to more 
nearly that of the vivid 
brunette. Dark brown or 
black mascara if needed. 


Warm colors neutralized to 
a touch of coolness are first 
choice. Cool colors grayed 
to gi\e them a suggestion of 
warmth are also effective. 
Dark reds, red-oranges, red- 
violets, including the more 
colorful browns and beiges 


1 

s 


Dark, subdued red-orange 
hair. Warm skin with deep 
orange-red coloring. Warm 
brown or sometimes dark 
eyes of cool color. Effect 
predominantly warm. 


Dark, subdued orange-red 
rouge and lipstick. Dark 
brown, sometimes black, 
mascara. Eye shadow may 
be used with eyes of cool 
color. 


Strong, forceful colors, par- 
ticularly fairly vivid, warm 
colors in low values, red, red- 
orange, orange, yellow, warm 
beiges, brown, wine espe- 
cially becoming. Black, es- 
pecially with color accent, is 
good. Warm off- whites, if 
slightly darker than the skin, 


•-> 
1 


Red-orange hair, skin fair 
and creamy with orange-red, 
red, or slightly violet-red 
flesh tones. Eyes cool blue, 
green, gray, or warm hazel or 
brown, but coloring pre- 
dominantly warm and vivid. 


Orange-red rouge and lip- 
stick of medium or low value 
in softened grayed rather 
than intense color. Dark 
brown mascara may be used. 
Eye shadow the color of the 
eyes is sometimes effective at 
night. 


Red-orange, orange, and 
yellow range in grayed inten- 
sities, less vivid than the 
color of the hair, particularly 
harmonious. Dull metallic 
gold, beiges, and medium and 
dark browns included in 
above. Subdued, cool colors, 
green, blue-green, blue, and 




Description of 

Personal 

Coloring 

of Each 

Type 


Make-up Most 

Effective with 

Personal 

Coloring 


Actively Becoming 
Colors Enhancing 

Personal 

Coloring 



Colors Becoming to Those of Warm Coloring 93 



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94 Colors Becoming to Those of Warm Coloring 

trast with her dark coloring, without making her skin ap- 
pear yellow, as dead white or pale, cool colors would do. 

Warm colors of low values (the vivid brunette may 
wear intense colors if the value is low); rich dark reds; 
dark browns; deep, warm tans and beige; dark brownish 
or rosy grays; and, sometimes, red-violet and violet are 
usually the most becoming colors for the vivid brunette. 
Black, particularly with an accent of warm colors, is usu- 
ally becoming. Black and other dark, neutral colors are 
flattering to the florid brunette. 

The Latin Type 

The brunette so often called the Latin type, with very 
dark brown, almost black hair, dark skin that seems to 
have almost yellow-green tinge, usually with brown or 
black eyes, possesses a subdued warmth. Her olive skin 
is not basically yellow-green, but rather an orange that is 
neutralized enough so that it has a slightly yellow-green 
appearance. 

Warm colors neutralized or grayed until they have a 
dusty, slightly greenish quality are particularly effective 
with the olive skin, emphasizing the distinctive coloring 
of the individual. Vivid warm colors are also effective 
with coloring of this type, which is sufficiently forceful 
not to be overpowered by strong colors, yet is not in itself 
so vivid that it will tend to clash with other definite hues. 

Intense, vivid, cool colors should be avoided; but neu- 
tralized, softened, cool colors, which have obtained a slight 
feeling of warmth in the neutralization, may be becoming. 
Intense, cold colors will force the yellow and yellow- 



Colors Becoming to Those of Warm Coloring 95 

green in the skin, making it look dark and muddy. Blue 
and blue-violet, especially in vivid intensities, should be 
avoided for the same reason. A very dark navy blue with 
a warm color accent may be worn; but a subdued and 
dark value of a warm color, or a black with a warm ac- 
cent, would be more becoming. 

Green, especially the middle and low values, sometimes 
fairly high values, frequently makes the skin appear 
clearer and whiter, the more decided green of the costume 
blending with the greenish tinge in the skin, but over- 
shadowing it, making it seem less greenish. Accents of 
a warm color will make most cool colors much more be- 
coming. 

Warm beiges and browns, containing more orange and 
red-orange than yellow, are much more becoming than the 
yellowish colors, which make the skin appear dull and 
brownish. Warm taupe or warm gray may sometimes be 
used if the skin is clear. Cool, bluish grays should be 
avoided. Red-violet, red, and red-orange are, in most in- 
stances, the most becoming colors and should be used as 
the foundation of the wardrobe. 



CHAPTER X 

/) n the course of trying colors on large numbers of 
<c^ individuals, the author has become convinced that 
persons whose coloring is cool appear to best advantage in 
costumes of cool coloring, while those whose coloring is 
warm find warm colors most becoming. If we accept 
this general rule, we can readily appreciate that those 
persons whose coloring is a combination of warmth and 
coolness may select from a wide color range. 

In America, where there is a fusion of Northern and 
Southern peoples, we find that large numbers of persons 
have a mixture of warm and cool coloring rather than 
being definitely either warm or cool. There are many 
combinations of color that may be classified as inter- 
mediate : the hair may be warm, the eyes may be definitely 
cool, and the skin may range between the two; or the hair 
and skin may be cool and the eyes warm. 

It is the individual of the intermediate type who most 
frequently fails to wear the most becoming colors, because 
she has failed to recognize the true character of her color- 
ing. A number are at a loss as to whether they should be 

96 



Colors for Intermediate Type 97 

classed as blondes or brunettes, knowing only these two 
broad classifications. Others definitely class themselves 
as one or another, wearing the colors traditionally becom- 
ing to that group, without appreciation of the effect upon 
individual coloring. 

Combining some of the traits of cool and warm types, 
possessing some of the characteristics of both blonde and 
brunette, the intermediate type may wear colors becoming 
to both of these groups. While she may have more 
variety in her dress than individuals whose coloring is 
definitely warm or cool, she is wisest if she carefully 
analyzes the effect of various values and hues upon her 
skin, hair, and eyes and wears the colors that do the most 
to improve her appearance, even though many other 
colors may be fairly becoming. She is free to emphasize 
her best characteristics. If her eyes are a clear, deep blue 
and of good size and shape, they may be still further en- 
hanced by selection of blue apparel. The skin and hair of 
intermediate types usually look well with either cool or 
warm colors, provided the intensity is not too great. 
Hence her choice is not limited by giving first considera- 
tion to skin and hair, as is that of the person with a more 
clearly defined, and therefore limited, type of coloring. 

Yellow Hair, Cool Skin, and Brown Eyes 

One of the most distinctive combinations of warm and 
cool coloring is that in which the skin is fair and cool, red- 
violet in coloring; the hair yellow, usually light and not 
too vivid so that the feeling of warmth is present but not 
striking; and the eyes brown and definitely warm. 



98 Colors for Intermediate Type 

Golden tans and browns, which enhance the color of the 
eyes and at the same time emphasize the color of the hair, 
are frequently becoming to this type. However, care 
must be taken to avoid using tans near the value of the 
hair, or it will appear drab and uninteresting. If the skin 
is sallow as well as fair, accents of contrasting color will 
increase the becomingness of the tan-brown range. Blue- 
green and green may be used as a cool accent, while 
orange and red-orange are frequently becoming, if a vivid, 
warm color is to be used in this way. 

Blues, greens, and violets contrast with the hair, increase 
its golden color, and are pleasing with the fair cool skin. 
Reds, oranges, and yellows, if not too intense for the deli- 
cate coloring of the skin and hair, harmonize with the 
brown eyes and give warmth to the skin. 

Ma\e-up important for dar\-eyed type. Light eye- 
lashes and eyebrows frequently detract from the beauty 
of brown eyes and make the individual seem lacking in 
emphasis. Darkening of eyebrows and lashes, using a 
dark brown, not a black, mascara will darken and increase 
the size of the eyes, markedly improving their appearance. 
When the natural coloring is faint, either orange-red or 
violet-red rouge may be used, according to the colors worn. 
With reds and oranges the orange-red is preferable. 
Sometimes it may be chosen for wear with blue and blue- 
greens, which are complementary to red-orange. Usually, 
however, the red-violet rouge is preferable with cool colors. 
With violet, blue-greens, greens, and blues, violet-red 
rouge seems most natural. The person who has appre- 
ciable natural coloring should match it in rouge and lip- 
stick if she finds it necessary to use artificial color. 



Colors for Intermediate Type 99 

Brown Hair, Brown Eyes, Medium or Fair Skin 

Warmer in color than the type just studied, wearing 
much the same colors, but finding the warm colors pref- 
erable in most instances, is the person whose hair, instead 
of being fair, is definitely brown and fairly dark, or at 
least of middle value. Her skin, however, is fair and red- 
violet in coloring, differentiating her from the warm- 
skinned brunette. The violet and red-violet shades, usu- 
ally so difficult to wear, are becoming to her. Wine reds, 
deep red, red-orange (especially warm browns and tans), 
and soft yellows emphasize her eyes much more than do 
the violet shades. They are likewise pleasing with her 
hair. 

Creamy white or the warm off-white shades in flesh or 
orange tones are preferable to dead white. Black ac- 
cented with color is preferable to all-black, except on florid 
women of this type. 

Green and blue may emphasize dark tinges in the skin 
and should be avoided if the skin is not clear and healthy. 
They are, however, especially in low and middle values, 
frequently becoming to this intermediate type, if the skin 
is clear and definitely cool. 

Brown Hair; Gray, Green, or Blue Eyes; Fair Skin 

The type with cool eyes, blue, green, or gray, which fre- 
quently assume the hue of cool colors worn, and with fair, 
cool skin with red-violet flesh tints possesses both positive 
coolness and warmth, the latter supplied by brown hair 
with red-orange lights. 

This prevalent intermediate type, possessing both def- 



ioo Colors for Intermediate Type 

inite warmth and coolness in her coloring, has, particularly 
if her skin is clear, the widest color range from which to 
select her costume. She may wear either warm or cool 
colors ; but frequently she finds the latter more becoming, 
as they blend with cool skin and eyes and, at the same 
time, may increase the color of the hair by means of com- 
plementary contrast. It is true that the person with pre- 
dominantly warm coloring may wear more vivid warm 
colors than can this intermediate type, and that those with 
predominantly cool coloring may wear more vivid cool 
colors; but the intermediate, with about evenly balanced 
warm and cool coloring, may wear in greater variety 
modulated intensities of either warm or cool colors. 

Being able to wear either warm or cool colors, it is par- 
ticularly easy for this type to emphasize the best features. 
If the eyes are large and well shaped, they may be made to 
seem more so by the color in the apparel worn. If the 
eyes are blue, a large area of soft blue or a small area of 
intense blue will intensify their blueness. Likewise, blue- 
green, green, or gray may improve the apparent coloring 
of the eyes, blue-green intensifying either the blue or green 
hue, giving them an interesting subtle color, while gray 
may increase the cool, thoughtful air that eyes of this color 
lend to the countenance. As a general rule, middle and 
low values of soft, grayed, cool colors both increase the 
color of the eyes and make them appear darker and with 
more depth. 

Violet, red-violet, and blue-violet are becoming to this 
type, more so than to any other coloring. Blue-violet and 
violet may likewise increase the color in the eyes. Red- 



Colors for Intermediate Type 101 

violet is particularly becoming to the complexion, espe- 
cially in subdued intensities. Both light and dark values 
of red-violet are becoming. Red may usually be worn, 
although it is seldom the individual's most becoming 
color. The intensity of red is best when subdued; low 
values tend to be better than high. Red-orange and 
orange tones may enhance the color of the hair and may 
be especially becoming if used either as an accent to cool 
colors or with an accent of cool color. Browns and tans 
near the color of the hair should be studiously avoided, 
for matching hue, intensity, and value make the hair 
look drab and uninteresting and give the individual a 
monotone appearance. Warm, rosy beiges are more be- 
coming than those with a gray or yellow cast. 

Black, with white or color — if the individual's flesh tints 
are weak — is usually becoming, especially in more lustrous 
textures, as satin or velvet. Gray, either cool or warm, 
the former in medium or low values, the latter in light 
values, is becoming, especially when accented by a touch 
of vivid blue, blue-green, green, or sometimes violet, red- 
violet, or red-orange, the latter in a coral shade. 

Color contrast, a background or large area of a cool 
color of softened intensity with an accent of warm color 
or vivid intensity, or vice versa, makes a particularly pleas- 
ing color scheme for the person whose own coloring is 
composed of contrasting warmth and coolness. Value 
contrasts, or contrasts of light and dark values, are also 
becoming. Medium values, in which there is definite 
contrast of hue, are becoming, but should be avoided when 
the hue is near that of the wearer's hair. 



102 



Cojors for Intermediate Type 



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CHAPTER XI 
O^/^t^ Vitalize l/l/awieii 




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Ohe woman whose hair has lost its original coloring 
^Aand has turned gray or white is handicapped more by 
tradition, which designates black and lavender as suitable 
colors for her to wear, than by actual unbecomingness of 
colors themselves. In fact, snowy white hair may increase 
the list of becoming colors, softening, as it does, the indi- 
vidual's coloring and giving a becoming frame to the face. 

The wise woman, when her hair has become white, 
capitalizes this feature, wearing colors to accent its snowy 
whiteness. In return it gives her an air of distinction, an 
appearance of sophistication. 

Women whose hair is in that trying stage of turning 
gray, or whose hair is still definitely gray, lack the advan- 
tage of the white-haired woman, but they may minimize 
this disadvantage by choosing colors carefully, avoiding 
those that emphasize yellow or brownish tinges in their 
hair and choosing those that make their skin and eyes 
appear to best advantage. They should attempt to em- 
phasize the blue-gray or blue-whiteness of their hair. 
They must also consider changes in the skin, which may 

104 



Colors for Women with Gray or White Hair 105 

have become yellow and darkened or florid or pale, or 
which time and the becoming frame of gray hair may 
have softened and improved. 

Mixed Dark and Gray Hair Difficult Problem 

The individual whose hair is in the process of turning 
gray, partly dark and partly light, presenting a salt-and- 
pepper effect if the hair was originally very dark, has 
difficulty in selecting becoming colors. She must avoid 
colors that will emphasize the mixture of color in her 
hair. White and black mixtures, or mixed light and dark 
colors, may emphasize the feature that she wishes to con- 
ceal. She must likewise avoid colors that will make her 
hair assume a greenish cast, for the mixture of color in her 
hair frequently makes it seem a muddy green. She will 
find many colors becoming when a hat is worn concealing 
the greenish hair. 

Brown and tans, especially yellow tans, should be 
avoided. Black should be worn with a hat or with color 
accent. Soft, grayed colors will be more becoming than 
vivid ones. Dark values are likely to be more becoming 
than light ones, the latter making the hair look greenish 
gray. Medium values may be becoming if they are of soft 
warm colors ; in cool colors they are likely to be too similar 
to the greenish tone of the hair. Dark red, violet-red and, 
if the skin is not yellow, violet, blue-violet, and blue will 
be becoming. Dark blue-green is usually effective. Dark 
green is frequently becoming. Light greens and yellow- 
greens emphasize disagreeable tones in the hair. Soft, 
medium values in red, orange-red, rose, and henna shades 



106 Colors for Women with Gray or White Hair 

are becoming to the hair and to all but the florid com- 
plexion. 

Wider Color Range for Definitely Gray Hair 

The person whose hair is definitely gray finds it less 
difficult to select becoming colors. Her coloring has now 
become decidedly cooler than it was before her hair lost 
its pigment, and the disagreeable greenish cast of the 
transitional stage has largely disappeared. The hair now 
has or should have a bluish-gray cast. This bluish char- 
acter should be intensified by the colors worn, as the blue 
tinge is much more pleasing than brownish casts. 

Grayed, warm colors in nearly all values — the reds, red- 
violet, and red-orange — will usually be becoming. The 
cool colors, violet, blue-violet, blue, blue-green, and green, 
preferably in soft grayed colors, are becoming to gray- 
haired women who have cool eyes and skin. Blue-green 
and green are especially flattering. Tans, browns, and 
black are the only colors that need especially be avoided, 
and the latter is permissible if used with accents of color. 
White is also difficult to wear unless it is combined with 
color, as white alone may make the hair seem too definitely 
dark and cold. 

Grays may be worn, but they should be chosen with 
care, attention being given to their effect upon both the 
skin and the hair. Grays slightly darker than the hair 
and of a slightly bluish cast, but not bluer than the hair, 
will make the hair seem lighter, a desirable blue-white- 
ness. Grays lighter than the hair are likely to make it 
appear dark and dingy. Warm grays sometimes empha- 



Colors for Women with Gray or White Hair 107 

size the cool, bluish grayness of the hair, but they must be 
chosen only after careful consideration, for sometimes they 
emphasize brown or yellowish casts in the hair or contrast 
unpleasantly with it. Cool grays, or those that are truly 
neutral, are, in most instances, more becoming, particu- 
larly if used with a color accent, rose or coral, turquoise or 
other soft blues and blue-greens, jade greens, or one of the 
violets or red-violets in soft, fairly light values. 

As warm grays tend to be trying, so do beiges in the 
more definitely warm neutral effects. If beige is to be 
worn, it should be decidedly warm, rosy, and less neutral 
in cast than those that approach gray. 

White Hair Permits More Vivid Colors 

As the hair becomes whiter, more silvery in tone, it be- 
comes increasingly beautiful in itself, forming a softening 
and becoming frame for the face. The woman whose 
hair has turned completely white, therefore, may wear 
more colors, nearly all hues, vivid as well as more neutral- 
ized intensities, and all values from light to dark. Many 
women, especially youthful women whose hair has turned 
prematurely white but whose skin remains clear with good 
coloring, find that colors that were not becoming when the 
hair was dark are extremely pleasing with white hair. 

The woman possessing white hair and a good com- 
plexion may wear vivid red, while the woman whose skin 
is more faded finds the softer more neutralized reds, 
usually in higher values, as soft rose, even flesh tints, more 
becoming, as they do not overshadow her more delicate 
coloring. Red-violets are becoming, especially in grayed 



io8 Colors for Women with Gray or White Hair 



m 

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Much cooler and much 
more becoming than mixed 
or gray hair is silvery-white 
hair, which softens the fea- 
tures and clears the skin. 


A light or medium soft 
violet-red rouge is usually 
best on this type. It should 
be delicately applied. Eye 
make-up should usually be 
omitted. 


*** 


Hair that has turned defi- 
nitely gray loses its trying 
greenish cast, becoming blu- 
ish gray, which tone should 
be intensified by colors worn. 
This type appears definitely 
cooler, particularly if flesh 
tints are not too vivid. If 
the eyes are cool, the type is 
definitely cool, but gray eye- 
lashes may make brown eyes 
look cool. 


Except on very fresh, 
youthful, clear skin, a very 
much softened medium or 
dark rouge should be used. 
Violet-red is usually more 
becoming. The youthful 
person may wear somewhat 
more vivid rouge. Persons 
whose skin remains definitely 
warm may wear a dark 
orange-red rouge. In most in- 
stances it is best to let the eye- 
1 ashes and brows remain gray. 
If darkened, a dull, dark- 
brown mascara should be 
used. 


•<* 

ss 

5 


Hair that is beginning to 
lose its pigmentation has a 
definitely greenish cast that 
should be rendered inconspic- 
uous by the colors worn. 
The general coloring appears 
cooler. Skin may have be- 
come yellow or florid but is 
more frequently paler in lips 
and cheeks. Eyes may be 
either warm or cool, but the 
hair and skin become the 
most important considera- 
tions. 


Fairly dark and definitely 
grayed or softened rouge, in 
orange-red or violet-red 
matching natural coloring, 
should be discreetly applied. 
Too much color emphasizes 
aging skin. If natural color 
is pale or subdued, violet-red 
rouge is likely to be best, re- 
gardless of original youthful 
coloring. Mascara usually 
too harsh; if used, should be 
dark brown. 




Description of 

Personal Coloring 

of Each Type 


Make-up Most 

Effective with 

Personal Coloring 



Colors for Women with Gray or White Hair 109 



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no Colors for Women with Gray or White Hair 

intensities. Violet and blue-violet must be even more 
neutralized or they will give unpleasant greenish or yel- 
lowish tinges to hair and complexion. Blue is likewise 
best subdued, but very flattering in soft shades, especially 
if the eyes are blue. Blue-green and green are definitely 
flattering, but yellow-green as well as yellow is distinctly 
difficult. Shades of brown and tan likewise do nothing 
to enhance the appearance of the individual, although they 
are not so disastrous to the white-haired woman as to the 
one whose hair is just beginning to turn gray. 

Black is becoming, as it accents the whiteness of the 
hair. White or colors used with black frequently make it 
more becoming to the complexion. White and very light 
pastel colors are usually becoming, creamy white being 
preferable to dead white, especially if the skin is dark or 
yellow. Very light values, with hair of light value, give 
the individual a dainty, fragile appearance, which is de- 
cidedly becoming to many white-haired women, but is 
lacking in character and force on others. This can be 
remedied by using accents of dark value, thus supplying 
the value contrast that no longer exists in the individual's 
coloring. 

Grays are more becoming to the white-haired woman 
than to the one whose hair is gray. Lighter grays may be 
worn, but they should be a shade darker than the hair or 
they will make it appear dark and gray rather than white. 
Cool grays, bluish grays, are preferable for the woman 
with clear skin having no yellow tinge; warm grays are 
preferable if the skin is not beautiful. If the skin is defi- 
nitely aged and yellow, it is best to avoid grays entirely. 



Colors for Women with Gray or White Hair in 

Blue-gray with an accent of blue or blue-green is an es- 
pecially charming color scheme for the older woman with 
white hair, blue eyes, and skin of delicate coloring. Rose 
and coral shades with warm gray are becoming to many 
women, especially those with brown eyes. 



CHAPTER XII 



L(Ms£ 



<ai 



Color Interest 

/Combinations of color, the use of two or more colors, 
L^make the costume more interesting than one alone. 
The use of a second accent color may make an otherwise 
unbecoming color wearable or even actively becoming. 
An interesting combination of colors will make an other- 
wise ordinary costume distinctive and highly individual. 

Color harmonies, arranged so that the dominant con- 
trast or accent is near the face, make it the center of in- 
terest. Costume jewelry, collars, scarfs, hats, or hat trim- 
ming may supply color contrast, which gives accent near 
the face. 

It must not be forgotten that the coloring of the face 
itself, of the skin, hair, and eyes, forms the basis of the 
color scheme. The colors of the wearer are added to any 
combination of colors that she adopts in a costume. If 
her costume is at one with herself in hue, value, and inten- 
sity, or perhaps in value alone, the whole effect will be 
monotonous. Her personal coloring may add a jarring 
note to an unwisely chosen co*stume that is harmonious in 
itself. 

112 



Harmonious Combinations of Colors 113 

There are three forms of color harmony, as follows: 

Contrast of hues. A contrast of hue, a combination of 
two or more colors containing different pigmentation, is 
the most obvious form. Such a harmony might be 
formed by a combination of yellow and blue, yellow and 
green, or by two closely related colors, as yellow and 
orange. The various ways in which contrasts of hue may 
be made pleasing will be discussed later. 

Contrast of value. A second form of color harmony, 
one equally effective in costume design, is that produced 
by contrast of light and dark colors, termed a contrast of 
value. Since value contrast is necessary to avoid monot- 
ony, contrasts of light and dark colors are especially be- 
coming to those persons who do not have a contrast of 
light and dark in their personal coloring. It is effective 
and interesting on all types. 

Black and white form the most decided contrast, one 
that may be extremely dramatic. Less sharp contrasts 
might be formed by black and gray or by white and gray. 
The three gradations of value might be used together. 
Light and dark grays might be incorporated. 

Visualizing these contrasts of value alone will aid in un- 
derstanding those harmonies formed by contrasts of light 
and dark values of the same hue. A light green may be 
combined with a dark green, a light red (pink) with a 
dark red. In order to achieve true harmony, these con- 
trasts should be in exactly the same hue. A light violet- 
red used with a dark red or orange-red will be far less 
pleasing than two violet-reds. A contrast of decidedly dif- 
ferent hues together with a contrast of value, as pale yellow 



H4 Harmonious Combinations of Colors 

used with dark blue, is also correct. The most important 
point to remember is that there should be a decided con- 
trast so that the appearance of an intended matching of 
hue is avoided. 

It is likewise important that for cases in which only two 
or three values are employed there be a decided contrast 
between them. If a number of variations of value are 
used, they should show regular gradations from light to 
dark. It is possible to combine a large number of similar 
values, the slight changes from one to another progressing 
in regular order, thereby producing a pleasant feeling of 
rhythm. Thus a dress might shade from a dark violet at 
the hemline to a pale violet at the neckline. 

Since dark colors appear heavier than light ones, they 
should be at the bottom of the costume or small accents on 
a light costume, when not used as the basis of the costume 
itself. 

Contrast of intensity. Contrast of pure bright colors 
with those of grayed or neutralized intensity provides a 
third means of color harmony. Since vivid colors are less 
suitable for an entire costume, yet may be effective and be- 
coming in small areas, harmonies formed by the addition 
of accents of vivid color to otherwise neutral or grayed 
costumes are important in costume design. A bright blue- 
green might be used as an accent to a grayed blue-green, 
or it might be used with black or white, or with a soft 
grayed red-orange. Thus a contrast of intensities of the 
same hue supplies a color harmony, or differing intensities 
may be used with a contrast of value or one of hue. 



Harmonious Combinations of Colors 115 

Matching Hues 

Harmonies composed of one hue with variations of 
value and intensity are known as monochromatic or one- 
color harmonies. These are easily combined as used in 
costumes, although it is sometimes difficult to find the re- 
quired variations. However, in the past few years, manu- 
facturers and retailers have attempted to concentrate on a 
few basic hues, showing light and dark, bright and grayed 
colors of exactly the same hue. Thus all greens for one 
season are a true green, not a blue-green or a yellow-green. 
Another season they might be blue-greens, but it is planned 
not to use two slightly different hues during the same 
period. Individuality and variety are possible through 
accent colors as well as from a choice of the most becoming 
of the season's basic colors. 

When it is impossible to match exactly the color of two 
items, as a dress and a hat, a decided contrast is preferable 
to the use of two closely similar colors. If the hue is the 
same, a slight contrast of value or of intensity is less serious 
than a slight contrast of hue. 

A slight difference between two supposedly matching 
colors may frequently be made less apparent if the two 
colors are separated by a contrasting color. Thus a coat 
and hat may seem to match exactly if they are separated 
by a large fur collar. 

Related or Analogous Colors 

Hues that, though different, have something in common 
are combined in harmonies of related or analogous colors. 



n6 Harmonious Combinations of Colors 

All cool colors or all warm colors would be used together 
in this form of harmony. Blue, blue-green, green-blue, 
and green might be effectively employed together, the 
slight differences between the hues producing an attrac- 
tive rhythm. The differences may be less pronounced 
when a series of slightly varying hues are combined, 
rather than when only two colors are used. The ranges 
of colors, as seen on the color plate, between blue and vio- 
let, between violet and red, or from red to yellow, from 
yellow to green are all effective analogous harmonies. 

The yellow, orange, and red-orange color scheme, with 
its variations of beige, tan, and brown as well as the more 
vivid intensities, is particularly effective both in harmonies 
of slightly varying related hues and in those formed of 
one hue in different intensities of values. 

Decided Contrast of Hue 

More decided contrast than that produced by two closely 
related colors is sometimes needed to give emphasis to the 
costume or to give a pleasing balance of warm and cool 
colors. Combinations of two hues are more easily used 
in costumes than a greater number of hues. When a num- 
ber of colors are used, they are most effective in a fabric 
having a design in several colors or one in which a number 
of colors are grouped to accent a fairly dark or neutral 
foundation color. Black, gray, white, dark brown, dark 
blue, or any soft, grayed color might thus be accented with 
several more definite colors used in conjunction. 

Warm and cool colors combined. Two decidedly dif- 
ferent hues, one a warm color, one a cool color, form a 



Harmonious Combinations of Colors 117 

sharp and striking contrast. If both are bright, the effect 
may be too bold for a becoming costume, but if the basic 
color is somewhat grayed, the accent color may be vivid. 
Green-blue might be accented by orange, blue by yellow, 
red by blue-green, green by violet. The colors on opposite 
sides of the color circle (shown in the color plate, frontis- 
piece) are opposite in their characteristics. One supplies 
what the other lacks. They, therefore, form harmonious 
combinations when used together. A monochromatic or 
an analogous combination may likewise be accented by an 
opposite color. Thus a series of blues might be accented 
by yellow. 

Accents of opposite colors enable many persons to wear 
otherwise unbecoming colors. Those women who do not 
appear at their best in cool colors may find that the violet, 
violet-blue, blue, and blue-green range is becoming if 
accented by yellow, orange, or red-orange used near the 
face. Those to whom cool colors are becoming may like- 
wise wear warm colors accented by blue-green, blue, or 
violet-blue. 

Those persons to whom warm colors are most becoming 
may very wisely purchase accessories and costume jewelry 
in these becoming hues, using them with neutral and cool 
colors as well as with costumes of warm hues. Amber, 
carnelian, coral, and semiprecious stones of warm hues are 
excellent choices for accessories of permanent value. 

Turquoise, jade, and lapis lazuli are among the semi- 
precious stones of cool colors that form becoming accents 
for persons with cool colors. They are excellent with sub- 
dued warm colors, yellows, oranges, red-orange (including 



n8 Harmonious Combinations of Colors 

the beiges and browns). They may likewise be used with 
grayer, lighter, or darker colors of the same hue as their 
own coloring. 

It should not be forgotten that warm coloring in the 
skin or hair may give a warm contrast to a costume of 
cool color. 

Three or four widely diverse colors. When three or 
four colors are used together they should, unless they are 
neighboring or analogous colors, be widely different, so 
that each supplies the quality that the other lacks, all to- 
gether achieving a balance of warmth and coolness. 
Orange, blue-green, and blue-violet achieve harmony in 
this way. This type of harmony is more difficult to apply 
to costumes, not only because it requires a better-trained 
eye and a more expert knowledge of color, but because a 
great diversity of color in a costume, unless very skillfully 
designed, prevents the costume from appearing as a uni- 
fied whole. Fabrics woven or printed in several colors, 
with the color broken in small areas and blended by skill- 
ful placement, are the wisest choice for all, except expert 
designers, who wish to incorporate more than two hues 
or closely related hues in the same costume. 

Using Color as a Basis for Wardrobe Selection 

Some women would like to wear more interesting and 
individual colors but feel that it is more economical to 
confine their selections to black or some other single color. 

It may be just as economical to have a wide variety of 
colors in the wardrobe, if they are all selected with a defi- 
nite, planned color scheme in mind. If economy must 



Harmonious Combinations of Colors 119 

be a constant consideration it is advisable to select one 
basic dark color as an accessory color. This makes it pos- 
sible to use the same shoes, handbag, hat, gloves, and ho- 
siery with a number of different costumes. 

If black is becoming, especially in a hat, it makes a good 
accessory and background color, for, with it, almost all 
colors, except possibly brown and navy blue, are smart. 
However, black and brown may also be combined in 
certain textures — brown furs, for instance, may look very 
well with black. Black hats and black shoes, however, 
are seldom advisable with brown. Navy blue is not es- 
pecially good with black, but almost all other shades of 
blue are excellent with black — pale blues, gray blues, 
bright blues, violet blues, and green blues are all extremely 
effective with black. 

The black basic costume, with touches of either pale or 
bright color, is chic and may be made becoming to almost 
every woman if the proper accent is chosen. Black and 
white or off-white is likewise widely becoming. If black 
is chosen as the basic color, one need wear very little actual 
black, except in accessories; and one need never wear un- 
relieved black. Yet one is more likely to have a harmoni- 
ous costume if black is decided on as the basic color before 
a single purchase is made. 

Women who wear many outdoor clothes, particularly 
of the tweed and more rugged types, do well to provide 
brown accessories for these sport clothes. Tannish-brown 
leather not only makes flat-heeled shoes seem smart when, 
otherwise, they would be merely dowdy in black, but it is 
a practical leather color that does not show wear and scuff- 



120 Harmonious Combinations of Colors 

ing, and it blends with almost all outdoor colors — not only 
with tannish and brownish tweeds, but with the greens 
and blues that frequently look so well in outdoor clothes. 
It likewise goes well with yellows and reddish tones, in 
fact, with almost all colors except black. 

If economy must be considered, a coat in the chosen 
basic color will be most satisfactory. 

Blac\. Black is probably the most satisfactory of all 
colors since, with different accessories, it may appear very 
simple or sophisticatedly dressy. It is especially impor- 
tant that black be well cut and well fitted, for black may be 
either dowdy or distinguished. 

With a black coat, dresses and hats of almost any be- 
coming colors may be worn, and the wardrobe is really 
less limited as to color interest than if a more definitely 
colored coat were chosen. Black has the almost unique 
advantage of looking well in every season of the year. 

Navy blue. Navy blue is- an excellent spring and sum- 
mer coat color which may appear more youthful and 
more flattering than black. While it permits many inter- 
esting color harmonies, it presents difficulties which black 
does not, as there is the difficulty of matching blues them- 
selves. Navy-blue shoes tend to have purplish casts and 
seldom exactly match the coat. For this reason black is 
often preferable for the shoes to be worn with a navy-blue 
coat. 

It is also difficult to get navy-blue hats, particularly straw 
hats, which look well with the navy-blue coat. Unless the 
blue hat is of exactly the same hue, it is usually better to 
wear a contrasting hat, perhaps of natural-colored straw 



Harmonious Combinations of Colors 121 

or of a bright color — possibly violet, red, or green. 

In considering a black coat, a contrast of texture, appar- 
ently giving a difference of color, tends only to add interest 
to the black costume, but the blue costume, having appar- 
ently different blues, appears poorly chosen and cheapened 
as a result. 

In the fall, a blue, spring coat still looks like a spring 
coat, while the same model in black appears suitable for 
fall and early winter. This is partly because the blue does 
not blend well with fur colors; it looks better with gray 
fur rather than black or brown fur, and, for this reason, 
has customarily been endorsed by fashion largely as a 
spring color. Blue being a "cool" color looks fresh and 
cool for spring and summer, but chilly for fall and winter. 

Brown. Brown, a warm color, which is largely used in 
fall and winter is also effective for spring and summer. 
Because brown is less widely used as a spring color its un- 
usualness among the predominately blue- and black-clad 
crowd gives it added distinction. 

Browns are more easily combined than navy blues, for 
browns of varying hues and values harmonize readily. 
Brown leathers, brown furs, and brown fabrics may be 
harmonized easily. More care should be used in selecting 
brown hats and dress and coat fabrics. If the hat does not 
match exactly, it should be either definitely darker or defi- 
nitely lighter, giving a deliberate contrast. The brown 
dress worn under a brown coat should likewise be either 
a good match or one showing pronounced contrast. 

Brown fur coats, especially the more luxurious brown 
minks, are universally accepted as proper for wear with 



122 Harmonious Combinations of Colors 

almost every color and texture. The richness of their 
coloring and their luster make them look well with 
black; but a brown, cloth coat of similar coloring is usu- 
ally unsuccessful with black. 

Beige. Beige is not becoming to all women, nor is it al- 
ways in fashion, but it is a highly practical color, which, 
for this reason, makes it an economical coat color. Beige 
combines well with almost every color except gray of the 
same value. A beige coat may be worn with almost any 
shoe colors — with black, brown, navy blue, tan, or beige. 
Hats of definite colors not only look well with beige but 
usually improve the appearance of a beige coat. While 
beige itself is not universally becoming, beige with the 
proper accents of brighter or darker colors is quite widely, 
wearable. The large woman should not forget that light 
colors tend to make her look larger and that the light 
beige coat will tend to increase the size of the figure. The 
silhouette, however, may be less evident in unobtrusive, 
neutral beige. 

Gray. Gray combines with all colors. A bluish gray, 
a pinkish gray, some variation of gray may be found for 
every color. Some women to whom beige is unbecoming, 
because it is too much like their skin and hair tones, may 
look well in gray, especially light, bluish grays. Women 
with white hair, who frequently find that beige makes 
their hair look yellowish, may wear carefully chosen gray, 
preferably gray a shade darker than their hair, so that their 
hair looks more silvery by contrast. 

Gray or beige looks best with decided accents of con- 
trasting color. Both hue and value should contrast with 
this light, neutral color. 



Harmonious Combinations of Colors 123 

Dar\ green. The woman who plans her costume care- 
fully may find green as useful and as economical as a more 
neutral color. A dark green coat may be worn with dark 
brown or black accessories, or with those that are carefully 
matched. Dark green combines well with definite blues, 
especially slightly violet blues. The woman to whom 
blues and green are especially flattering can work out suffi- 
cient variety with dresses and accessories in those colors. 
She may also wear dresses of brown, beige, gray, or black 
with her green coat. A combination of yellow and green 
is especially effective and may often be more becoming 
than yellow alone. Soft oranges may likewise be used 
with green, and light greens combine effectively. Red 
and green are likely to give a Christmas-tree effect, yet, if 
the green is dark, red and green may be extremely effective. 

Wine color. Dark, wine color, which is flattering to 
almost all women except those with red hair, makes a be- 
coming coat color, but one of which many women tire 
quickly. It should, therefore, be chosen only by women 
who have several coats or who like the color so much that 
they are sure they will not become tired of it. While 
it limits the number of colors that may be worn in dress 
and hat, careful harmonizing will give considerable va- 
riety to the wardrobe. 

Lighter reds in the same violet-red cast, down to rosy 
tones and pale, dusty pinks, are effective. Greens and 
beiges are good. Some wine reds look well with brown; 
others, with black. Yellows, oranges, and orange-reds 
should be avoided. Greens must be very carefully chosen 
and should usually be very dark or very dull if they are 
to be used with wine red. 



Part II 



<^>ult(M,ette& a-uJL <~>ize& 



<~>ilhanette& and <~)ize£ 

/sk almost any woman engaged in shopping for 
<r^4- clothes how she plans to choose them. She will 
usually answer by naming the season and the occasion — 
something suitable for the street, for formal wear, for 
sports, for hot afternoons. She may say she wants some- 
thing new and different; more likely she will assume that 
you know that. She probably knows the effect she wants 
to achieve — tailored but not too severe, or something strik- 
ing or very feminine. If there is something about her 
person that particularly pleases or annoys her, she is likely 
to take that into consideration from the first. 
"I want a blue that just exactly matches my eyes." 
"It's awfully hard to find anything, because I'm so short.'* 
"I can't wear anything that will make my neck look 
any longer and skinnier than it is." 

And she may add wistfully, "I'll never have another out- 
fit as becoming as that green sport suit I had last year." 
Few women realize enough of the reasons for a success- 
ful costume to be able to apply the same principles to a 
different one. 

The cardinal principle underlying the achievement of 
beauty of figure, without changing actual measurements, 
is that proportion and not dimension is significant. A 
small foot or a small waistline is no credit to the large- 
framed woman. Her appearance will be improved when 

127 



128 Silhouettes and Sizes 

she ceases to pride herself on such smallness and brings 
it into scale. The slender woman with spreading hips 
must sacrifice some of her appearance of slenderness to 
bring her whole body into scale with their circumference. 
The short woman must avoid broadening effects, and the 
tall woman must seek to broaden her figure. In this way 
each approaches the proportions, though not the dimen- 
sions, of the normal figure. 

In designing a costume, it is well to remember that con- 
flicting centers of interest, too many details, make a cos- 
tume intricate and confusing. A well-designed costume 
has a major center of interest near the face and not more 
than two or three minor or subordinate accents. More 
than these gives a spotty appearance, causing the observer's 
eyes to jump from accent to accent with a restless move- 
ment, and give a decidedly unpleasing appearance to the 
costume. Secondary centers of interest may be on the 
hands or arms in the form of bracelets, rings, or interest- 
ing cuff details; at the waist or hipline; or, if repeated in 
a subdued manner, the accent used near the face may be 
at hemline or feet. 

The principles of beautiful proportion are, of course, 
quite independent of style and mode. Unfortunately, 
styles and modes are often quite independent of beautiful 
proportion. As the eye becomes accustomed to seeing 
them, poor proportions may seem more beautiful than they 
really are. Thus, low beltlines encircling the hips create 
a proportion difficult for many figures, yet, when they 
were the rule, others seemed awkward. The same is true 
of fads, such as short skirts, light-colored hosiery, and 



Silhouettes and Sizes 129 

cloche hats. As a part of the crowd, it is sometimes good 
policy to sacrifice some individual beauty of line. Yet in 
every mode there are degrees, and every woman profits by 
knowing what devices display her figure to best advantage. 
With the figure, as with the face, the aim in design 
should be to emphasize pleasing features and to center 
interest away from unattractive ones. 



CHAPTER XIII 



tke cr^X 



ivce 



• — 7 he study of devices for changing the apparent con- 
Jh tours of the face has made familiar the principle that 
slenderness may be gained either by adding length or by 
decreasing width, and that long thinness may be mini- 
mized by lines that shorten or by those that broaden. In 
the treatment of the figure, however, it is not possible to 
list, without qualification, certain devices that will give 
height and certain others that, by adding width, seem to 
make the figure shorter. In practically every case, it is 
necessary to say that, if wisely used, certain lines will give 
a certain effect, and to point out how unskillful variations 
will often produce an opposite effect. 

Critical Analysis of the Figure 

Proportion of head to body. The actual size of the fig- 
ure is less important than its proportions. It is not alone 
the actual height of the figure that makes an individual 
appear tall, but rather the proportion of the head to that 
of the body. A small head makes its owner appear much 
taller than an individual of the same height with a large 

130 



Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 131 

head. The height of the figure is sometimes measured in 
terms of heads (the measurement from crown to chin). 
Seven and one-half heads is considered average height. 
Some persons also regard this as ideal height while others 
prefer eight heads. Most professional mannikins have 
small heads and elongated bodies, sometimes being as 
much as nine heads in height. 

The width of the head should obviously be less than the 
length, if the head is to have the oval contour that is con- 
sidered ideal. 

Weight. The normal weight for an individual's height 
gives another basis for determining the costume lines 
needed. The late Dr. Lulu Hunt Peters, authority on 
weight control, recommended that the ideal weight be es- 
timated at no lbs. for 5 feet and 5^2 lbs. for every inch 
beyond that stature. Fashion authorities generally feel 
that this weight, while probably ideal from a physician's 
point of view, is somewhat too high to give a perfect foun- 
dation for the costume. Since Dr. Peters allowed for 10 
per cent variation, according to the size of the body frame, 
and since her table was for both men and women, 5 lbs. 
per inch rather than 5^2 is probably a safe basis for figur- 
ing ideal weight. Even when using this figure, one must 
consider whether the frame is small, medium, or large. 
A person of small frame may be overweight at a much 
lower figure than a person of large frame, yet may not 
appear so large, even though more rotund. Persons of 
large frame may need slenderizing lines whatever their 
weight. 

Posture. Posture influences the actual everyday height 






132 Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 

of the individual, for most people stand as erect as possible 
when being measured, but frequently fail to do so at other 
times. This must be considered when judging height and 
when prescribing lines. It is not sufficient to note whether 
or not the individual stands at her greatest height; we 
should also note what part of the body droops or sags. In 
one case only the neck and head may be stooped and in 
another the loss of height may be near the waistline where 
the trunk is allowed to sag. This may make a difference 
of several inches in the height, and it likewise makes a 
great difference in the contours of the body. Protruding 
diaphragm and abdomen, hollow back, and the protru- 
sion below are caused by sagging of the trunk. 

Proportion of shoulders to hips. In the ideal woman's 
figure, the shoulders and hips are of the same width. In 
that of children and very young girls the hips are narrower. 
When the hips are more slender than the shouders, the 
figure may appear youthful or merely awkwardly unde- 
veloped. When the hips are wider than the shoulders, 
an ungraceful line results. This defect should always be 
corrected as much as possible. When the shoulders are 
wider than the hips, correction is not always necessary, but 
it is advisable if the shoulders are unusually wide or the 
hips particularly thin and narrow. 

The arm. In a person of normal weight the arm tapers 
from the wrist to the elbow without becoming perceptibly 
wider above the elbow ; in the person who is below normal 
weight, the arm is smaller above than below the elbow; 
and in a person heavier than normal weight it is much 



Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 133 

larger above the elbow. The apparent size of the hands 
is frequently dependent not only upon their actual size 
but upon that of the arm and of the amount and the length 
of hand revealed by the dress. 

Waistline. The waistline should be judged when the 
foundation garment is worn, provided, of course, that the 
garment is necessary. When selecting this garment no 
effort should be made to define a waistline where one does 
not actually exist, since this usually gives an awkward and 
"stuffed" effect to the figure. The waistline as it appears 
on the clothed figure is important in determining the lines 
that should be worn and the placement and use of the belt. 

Legs and feet. In the figure of average proportions, the 
thigh is about the same width as the hips. If it is percep- 
tibly narrow or heavier, this point must be considered in 
choosing becoming lines. 

The calves, ankles, and feet can best be judged in pro- 
portion to other parts of the figure, since, if they are per- 
ceptibly smaller, they will make the figure appear unduly 
heavy. Small lower limbs seem to give an inadequate 
support to the large body. They frequently remain small 
when weight is put on in middle age. Effort should then 
be made to increase their apparent size, thereby increasing 
the apparent grace of the entire figure. 

One cannot judge the feet without considering whether 
or not the arches are erect or fallen. Frequently one must 
compromise beauty of line and prescribe shoes that will 
give adequate support to sagging arches. The feet them- 
selves and the lines of the figure will be improved. 



134 Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 




Wide panel gives 
breadth; narrow one 
gives slender effect. 



A narrow, perpendic- 
ular line formed by a 
zipper or a row of but- 
tons tends to divide the 
figure in halves, usually 
emphasizing true pro- 
portions; while becom- 
ing to the slender figure, 
it makes the heavier fig- 
ure look wider. 




Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 135 

Perpendicular Lines 

As nearly everyone knows, but sometimes fails to re- 
member, straight perpendicular lines tend to increase the 
apparent height of the wearer. Not everyone knows, 
however, that not all straight perpendicular lines give 
"long lines" to the figure. A large number of evenly 
spaced perpendicular lines lead the eye across the figure, 
from one stripe to the next, emphasizing width, not length. 
A broad panel may likewise cause either a horizontal 
movement or one of vertical feeling. 

Center panels. A panel extending the full length of 
the figure may be especially effective in increasing the 
apparent height of the wearer. Its width must, however, 
be proportioned with due regard to the size of the wearer. 
An extremely wide panel, one extending almost the width 
of the figure, tends to lead the eye of the observer across 
the figure, thus increasing its apparent width and mini- 
mizing its height. A narrower panel will cause the eye 
of the observer to travel up and down the figure, in per- 
pendicular movement, thereby increasing the height of 
the figure. A slight adjustment in the width of a panel 
may add greatly to the apparent grace of the wearer. The 
extremely thin, short woman will wish to avoid the severe- 
ly straight, long, narrow panel, which makes her appear 
appreciably thinner as well as taller. Panels in contrast- 
ing color, pleated panels, and similar means of obtaining 
softer lines than those of the severely straight panel are 
desirable. 

Narrow center line. A row of buttons, a band of trim- 
ming, or other perpendicular effect placed in the center 



136 Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 




A short tunic, especially 
if it is opened at the 
front giving the effect 
of side panels, materially 
shortens and widens the 
figure; the same over- 
dress carried the full 
length of the skirt, as in 
a redingote, lengthens 
the figure. 



To give long line, en- 
tire length of diagonal 
should be visible from 
front. 




Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 137 

of the figure divides the figure in two in such a manner 
as to place emphasis on width rather than on height. 
Several perpendicular lines grouped to give an effect simi- 
lar to that produced by a panel are usually much more be- 
coming than a single narrow perpendicular trimming 
used in the center. When a single line is employed, it is 
frequently more easily worn when placed at one side in- 
stead of in the exact center. 

Side panels. When they are in fashion, side panels may 
be used to modify the figure; carefully placed, they may 
either reduce or add to apparent height. If placed too far 
out over the hips, they tend to add width and shorten the 
figure. If they are shorter than the dress, they percep- 
tibly lessen apparent height. Panels of contrasting color, 
which are shorter than the dress and are placed far out 
over the hips, leaving a wide panel of the dress revealed, 
are especially difficult for the short woman to wear. 

Panels at least slightly longer than the dress tend to in- 
crease apparent height. If they are placed carefully, so 
that a pleasing space division, a panel of correct width, 
is formed in the center of the figure, panels or drapes at 
the side of the skirt are especially graceful on the short, 
thin figure. Pointed panels further add to the apparent 
height of the wearer. A slight adjustment in length or 
width of panels may perceptibly change the apparent pro- 
portions of the figure. 

Diagonals 

A diagonal line, being longer than a perpendicular line, 
placed lengthwise of the figure tends to increase the appar- 



138 Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 




A F-shaped neckline 
and pointed seaming at 
the waist makes the fig- 
ure seem taller than the 
square neckline and 
horizontal lines at the 
waist. 



Horizontals may lead 
eye up and down; con- 
trasted and well-placed 
horizontals lessen 
height. 





Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 139 

ent height of the figure. Not only does it lead the eye up 
and down, but it leads it over the longest path. A surplice 
closing, a diagonal line extending from the shoulder at one 
side to the hem at the other, therefore gives an appearance 
of height to the figure. The entire length of the diagonal 
should be visible from the front view, but should not ex- 
tend too far out at each side or it may tend to carry the 
eye outward. 

Points. A pointed line likewise leads the eye up and 
down, increasing the apparent length of the figure. It 
has an added advantage, in that the converging diagonals 
lead the eye inward, decreasing apparent width and giving 
height and slenderness. A pointed drape that has not 
wide, diverging lines is especially slenderizing. Pointed 
hemlines not only prevent a horizontal break in the figure 
but give a perpendicular movement. 

An effective device for increasing height, one that gives 
interest to the design of the dress and an air of sophistica- 
tion to the wearer, is the use of pointed lines, which give 
an up-and-down movement and appear to extend the fig- 
ure to greater length. A F-shaped neckline, V- or pointed 
seamings at the waist and hipline, and a skirt with an un- 
even F-hemline add perceptible length to the figure and 
give fashionable, long, slim lines. As the F-line may 
make the thin face too long, it should usually be combined 
with soft fabrics or with accessories having a softening 
influence upon the face. As slenderness of face and fig- 
ure are fashionable, however, the V- or pointed lines in a 
softened, not too-severe or geometric, interpretation are 
usually becoming, even to the short, thin woman. When 



140 Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 




Short sleeves add to 
width of figure, lessen- 
ing height; bare arms 
give long line. 



Wide sleeves and heavy 
cufTs add width at 
the hipline; close-fitting 
sleeves give a longer, 
more slenderizing line. 




Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 141 

she wears square or horizontal lines at the neck, at the 
waist and hips, and in the hemline, her height is greatly 
reduced and her width is exaggerated until even the thin 
figure may appear square and squat. 

Horizontals 

Horizontal lines are a well-known device for decreasing 
the apparent height of the figure; but few persons realize 
that, if incorrectly placed, these horizontals may lead the 
eye up and down the figure from one horizontal to the 
next and give an impression of increased rather than les- 
sened height. Evenly spaced horizontal lines are most 
likely to lead the eye up and down; tucks, seamings, or 
folds at regular intervals actually add height to the figure. 
Unevenly spaced horizontals, particularly if used in con- 
junction with color contrast, lead the observer's eye across 
the figure, increasing its apparent width and minimizing 
its height. As horizontal contrasts may be introduced in 
scarfs and belts, in contrasting jackets or blouses, or in the 
color of dresses showing beneath seven-eighth or three- 
quarter length coats, they are a means of lessening the 
height of the figure that can be applied to most costumes. 

Details 

Sleeves. A long, narrow sleeve gives a perpendicular 
feeling, while a wide sleeve produces a horizontal move- 
ment, which adds width and breaks the height of the fig- 
ure. If the sleeve is wide and even, the short, thin woman 
may appear to have wide, heavy hips and too great width. 
Her height, of course, will be seriously broken. A close- 



142 Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 

fitting sleeve, emphasizing the slender line of the arm, 
but not fitting too tightly if the arm is extremely thin, re- 
moves all bulk from the width of the figure and carries the 
eye of the observer up and down rather than across the 
figure. 

If the sleeve is of one color, rather than with contrasting 
cuff or other trimming, the length of the arm is increased, 
while undue emphasis of width is avoided. Contrasting 
cuffs, which cause the eye of the observer to travel across 
the figure from one wrist to the other, add width and 
thereby shorten the height. If the cuff or sleeve trimming 
is bulky as well as contrasting, the effect is still more dis- 
astrous to the short woman. Fur of self-color and of close, 
sleek character is most suitable for the sleeves of the short 
woman's coat. 

Gloves of contrasting color have an effect similar to that 
of color contrast used in the sleeves. 

Short sleeves, especially when in a dark color contrast- 
ing with the skin, break the length of the arm and place 
emphasis upon the width of the shoulders and of the en- 
tire figure. A sleeveless dress, permitting the entire 
length of the arm to be seen, emphasizes this length. The 
shoulders may appear narrower than in a sleeved, even a 
long-sleeved, dress, and the entire figure may appear taller 
and more slender. 

Collars and capes. The short, heavy woman must use 
great discrimination when selecting dresses with collars. 
Wisely chosen, they may add grace to her figure and give 
lengthened and softened lines to her face. Contrasting 
collars are especially difficult and should usually be rather 



Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 143 

small, since a large collar of contrasting color is almost 
certain to cut the figure horizontally. Large cape collars 
are most becoming if they are pointed or F-shaped, since 
they give long lines, which lead the eye to the center of the 
figure rather than toward the sides. When double points 
are used, they must not be placed so far apart as to lead 
the eye outward rather than lengthwise. Round or square 




Pointed cape is more slenderizing than wide, circular one. 

collars, obviously unsuited to the short, heavy figure, are 
often a pleasing contrast to slenderness. Collars of self- 
fabric without pronounced or conspicuous trimming at 
the outer edge are most easily worn. A contrasting trim- 
ming on a self -color collar is likely to break the length of 
the figure as much as would a collar of entirely contrasting 
color. 

Length of coat or jacket. A jacket ending near the cen- 
ter of the figure markedly decreases height, the horizontal 
line of the jacket cutting the length of the figure. The 
length of the legs is materially decreased, the figure seem- 



144 Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 



ing not only shorter but in many cases poorly proportioned. 

A bolero jacket, ending at or slightly above the waist- 
line, gives greater length of limb, making the entire figure 
seem taller and more slender. 

Coats of three-quarter or seven-eighth length are usu- 





In a bolero the figure seems taller than in a hip-length jacket. 
A full-length coat gives greater height than a three-quarter 
length one. 

ally less becoming than those of full length, as they break 
the line of the costume and leave too short a line under- 
neath to be in pleasing proportion with the length of the 
coat. This is especially true if the dress or skirt worn un- 
derneath the coat is of a contrasting color, which gives a 
border that breaks the length of the costume and makes 
the figure seem perceptibly shorter and heavier. A flar- 
ing, swagger cut, or a short length with a wide, full hem, 



Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 145 

shortens the figure more than does a close-fitting, straight 
line. 

Lines of hat. The effect of hats on the figure is much 
the same as the effect of the caps placed on the top of the 
perpendicular lines shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tion (p. 146). If a small, close-fitting turban is worn, 
there is no horizontal break in line to arrest the eye, and 
it will continue to travel upward, beyond the actual length 
of the figure, making the wearer seem taller, in the same 
manner that the straight line without a cap seems longer 
than the line next to it. 

A hat with a wide brim, creating a straight horizontal 
line, makes the figure seem shorter than it actually is, for 
the eye is not allowed to travel the full length of the fig- 
ure, but is arrested before it actually reaches the top of the 
figure. Thus the figure wearing a straight-brimmed hat 
loses even more apparent height than does the straight line 
with the straight horizontal cap. 

The drooping hat brim not only arrests the upward 
movement of the observer's eye but actually causes a down- 
ward movement, making the wearer's figure seem per- 
ceptibly shorter. This can, to some extent, be overcome 
by placing striking trimming above the brim, which, par- 
ticularly if high on the crown, may aid in retaining an up- 
ward movement. 

The upturned brim, even though it does, like other 
brims in the present mode, begin well down on the head, 
encourages the observer's eye to travel upward, beyond 
the actual limits of the figure, thereby increasing apparent 
height. 



146 Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 




ou>. 



The shape of the hat influences the apparent height of the figure, 
just as the caps at the top of the perpendicular lines influence their 
apparent length. All of the figures on this page are of the same 
height. 



Optical Illusions Affecting the Figure 147 

The slanting diagonal line in the brim may lead the 
eye up at one side. Together with trimming so placed 
that the emphasis is upon height, the wearer may appear 
taller than she actually is. If trimming is placed on the 
lower end of the brim, accenting the downward move- 
ment, the wearer tends to appear shorter. This is likewise 
true if the brim is larger on the side that dips down. 




CHAPTER XIV 

J-extuxe anJi v^al&t <=^hj:j:cct 

<^>Llkcmette and <~>ize 

reat as we know the effect of line to be upon the 
appearance of the figure, the effect of color and tex- 
ture is also so powerful that several dresses of identical 
design, but in fabrics of different color and texture, may 
produce widely different effects upon the figure of a 
woman wearing them. 

Shiny Textures Increase Si^e and Tkeveal Silhouette 

Shiny surfaces reflect light, thereby increasing the appar- 
ent size of the person wearing them. They likewise re- 
veal the silhouette as the high lights on the shiny surface 
reveal contours. A person with a large bust, large arms, or 
large hips finds shiny-surfaced fabrics particularly difficult 
to wear, as they not only increase the apparent size of the 
entire figure, but accentuate the poorly proportioned fea- 
tures, the high lights upon them compelling attention. 
Only the slender, well-proportioned woman should wear 
satins and other shiny-surfaced fabrics. The too-thin, 
angular woman finds them as trying as does the stout, 
rotund woman. 

148 



Texture and Color Affect Silhouette and Size 149 



Shiny textures highlight 
curves and increase 
rotundity; dull-surfaced 
fabrics are more slender- 
izing. 





Stiff fabrics increase ac- 
tual size of silhouette 
and apparent size of 
wearer; softer fabrics 
are more slenderizing. 



150 Texture and Color Affect Silhouette and Size 

Dull Textures Decrease Si^e and Conceal Silhouette 

Dull textures absorb light, thereby decreasing the appar- 
ent size of the wearer and tending to conceal the silhou- 
ette. Fabrics with dull surfaces, therefore, aid in decreas- 
ing the apparent size of the woman wearing them, by 
promoting an appearance of slenderness, at the same time 
adding grace to the figure by minimizing irregularities 
of silhouette. Dull-surface fabrics are becoming to nearly 
all types of women, there being no type of figure that 
cannot wear them in some interpretation. 

Stiff Fabrics Increase Si^e but Conceal Silhouette 

Stiff fabrics stand out from the figure, increasing its 
apparent size while concealing the actual outlines, the 
silhouette. Therefore, while a stiff fabric, such as taffeta, 
usually makes the wearer appear larger than she actually 
is, the woman who is only slightly larger than she desires 
to be may sometimes conceal excess weight by a dress of 
stiff fabric so designed that it conceals the real outlines 
of the figure, leaving the observer with the impression that 
it is the dress and not the wearer that possesses actual 
breadth. This device is particularly helpful in concealing 
irregularities of figure. For instance, the fairly slender 
woman with large hips may find that a taffeta gown with 
molded bodice, revealing the slenderness of the upper part 
of the figure, and a bouffant skirt, conceals the actual out- 
lines of the too-heavy hips. 

Stiff fabrics, unless carefully handled, give harsh angu- 
lar lines and may accentuate an appearance of angularity 
in the too-thin figure. However, if used so that they 



Texture and Color Affect Silhouette and Size 151 

stand out from the figure, not fitting closely, this is not 
likely to occur, since stiff fabrics, as a general rule, are 
best suited to the slender woman. They should, under 
most circumstances, be studiously avoided by the stout 
woman, and used with discretion by the slightly heavy 
woman attempting to disguise actual contours. 

Heavy Fabrics Also Increase Si^e and Conceal 

Silhouette 

Like stiff fabrics, heavy, bulky fabrics increase the size 
of the wearer and, at the same time, conceal the actual 
contours of the figure. They tend, however, to make the 
figure seem square and awkward, to emphasize angularity 
in figures that possess it, and actually to create that effect 
even upon the rotund figure. Thick, heavy fabrics must 
be very carefully handled, as extremely heavy fabrics are 
seldom becoming. For this reason, the development of 
sheer velvets and light-weight sheer woolens has made 
these fabrics becoming to the larger woman who for- 
merly could not wear them because they markedly in- 
creased her size. 

Heavy fabrics should be avoided by all except the tall, 
well-built woman who is neither too thin nor too fat, only 
the athletic figure and carriage being consistent with them. 
Moderately heavy fabrics of soft pliable character can be 
worn by the person of average figure, who will, however, 
usually find the lightweight fabrics of this type, such as 
the sheer or very lightweight tweeds, more becoming than 
heavy tweeds. A lightweight velvet is also more becom- 
ing to this type than heavy, deep-piled fabrics. 



152 Texture and Color Afreet Silhouette and Size 

Transparent Fabrics Reveal Silhouette 

While transparent fabrics neither increase nor decrease 
the size of the figure, they reveal its contours mercilessly 
so that the stout, rotund figure appears more so, while the 
thin, angular body is likewise accentuated, revealed in its 





Heavy, bulky fabrics add to the actual size of the silhouette; 
smooth, light-weight fabrics more slenderizing. 

Transparent fabrics reveal the actual contours and are difficult 
for the imperfect figure; soft, opaque fabrics are more wearable. 

lack of grace. Therefore, only the person near ideal pro- 
portions finds extremely transparent materials becoming; 
opaque, or at most slightly translucent, fabrics are more 
becoming to women who have imperfections to conceal. 

It is true that a transparent material made over a care- 
fully constructed opaque slip may be becoming to the 
woman whose figure is far from perfect, but only if the 



Texture and Color Afreet Silhouette and Size 153 

shoulders and arms it reveals have graceful contours and 
are not out of proportion to the rest of the body. A trans- 
parent costume over a straight, tight slip, which in itself 
reveals either rotundity or angularity in the wearer and 
also bad proportions, such as the too-large bust or hips, 
is especially unbecoming. Likewise a transparent dress 
worn over a slip with a straight top and straps may be un- 
becoming because the straight top of the slip creates a hor- 
izontal break in the figure. This is especially evident if 
the dress and slip are of dark material or conspicuous 
color contrasting with the flesh. A rounded line at the 
top of the slip, preferably with the slip following the out- 
lines employed at the neckline of the dress, is much more 
becoming. 

Transparent fabrics, especially in loose, floating draperies 
may give a very becoming, light, airy, graceful effect. 
Several thicknesses of transparent material used together 
conceal the contours, yet give a light elusive quality to the 
costume. Two or more layers of sheer fabric of the same 
color are more slenderizing than several layers of contrast- 
ing color. 

Clinging fabrics reveal the silhouette and emphasize 
bulk. Fabrics that cling closely, especially knitted fabrics, 
emphasize the silhouette and reveal even minor irregulari- 
ties and figure defects. They are becoming only to the 
slender of almost perfect proportions. The woman who 
is even slightly overweight should either avoid them en- 
tirely or should be sure that they are fitted very loosely and 
worn over suitable foundation garments, and slips which 
counteract their clinging tendencies. 



154 Texture and Color Affect Silhouette and Size 

The young girl with a perfect figure or the slender older 
woman with good figure and posture may find clinging 
fabrics very becoming, because they reveal and emphasize 
true contours of the figure. 

When selecting apparel made of clinging fabrics, one 
should always be sure that they are becoming from all 
angles, especially from the back view. One should also 
consider whether or not the fabric is going to hold its shape 
well. Many knitted and clinging fabrics stretch, losing 
their proportions, tending to bag out at the seat, the knees, 
and the elbows. Very often the pressing and reblocking 
necessary to keep them in shape totally offsets their pro- 
posed advantages of not crushing or wrinkling easily. 

Printed fabrics, or prints as they are generally referred 
to, break silhouette, give color, life, and animation. They 
may be very flattering as testified by the facts that they 
have been approved by fashion creators for the past dozen 
years, and that they have seldom, if ever, since machine 
printing developed, been entirely absent from the fashion 
picture. This continued use of prints mean that women 
like them because they are becoming, and because they 
are practical, not showing spots or wrinkles readily. 

But not all prints are becoming to all women. Un- 
suitable prints are so unpleasant in appearance that they 
sometimes make it seem safer to avoid printed fabrics 
entirely. 

A few simple principles make it easy to select prints 
that are wearable and becoming. When one looks at 
some prints, one finds that one's eyes jump from spot to 
spot. This is especially true when the designs are bold 



Texture and Color Affect Silhouette and Size 155 

in outline and widely spaced, without connecting lines be- 
tween the individual designs. Other prints carry the eye 
up and down, giving an impression of added height to 
the wearer. The opposite effect is obtained when the line 
direction of the print is horizontal, carrying the observer's 





Large, spotty prints increase apparent size of the wearer; small, 
all-over designs give an indefinite outline to the silhouette which 
is nattering to the out-of-proportion figure. 

Striped effects may be created by printed designs as well as by 
the more geometric and more obvious stripes; some stripes lead 
the eye across the figure while others have an up-and-down line 
direction; the former makes the figure seem wider; the latter more 
slender. 



eye across the figure. Some prints have a swirling-'round 
feeling, increasing the apparent rotundity of the wearer. 
Angular, geometric designs may make the figure seem 
stiff and more angular than it is; these prints, difficult for 



156 Texture and Color Afreet Silhouette and Size 

the too-thin figure, are too conspicuous for the heavy 
figure. 

Prints Should Be Scaled to Si^e of Wearer 

Dainty, fragile-appearing designs are becoming to petite 
women, but appear too delicate for heavy figures, making 
the figure seem larger by contrast. Large, sprawling pat- 
terns may also make the large figure appear heavier, while 
they seem too big for the small figure to carry. Moderate 
designs of moderate size, or allover patterns of indefinite 
outlines are the most easily worn. Striking color con- 
trasts, brilliant colors which command attention, are diffi- 
cult for all but perfect figures, and there is always danger 
that they will overshadow the personality of the wearer. 

Light Colors Increase Si^e and Conceal Silhouette 

Light colors reflect light, making the surfaces they cover 
seem larger than they actually are. At the same time they 
tend to conceal the silhouette, as there is little contrast be- 
tween the light color and the average background, par- 
ticularly the background of space. A light dress worn 
by a person on the stage against a black backdrop would 
of course reveal the outlines of the figure, but in most 
instances conditions are the reverse. 

Therefore, light colors, even though they increase the 
apparent size, may be becoming to even fairly stout 
women, as they make the silhouette inconspicuous. This 
is partly due to the fact that light colors appear actually to 
possess less weight, so that the woman in a light dress 
appears lighter and, therefore, less conspicuously stout, 



Texture and Color Affect Silhouette and Size 157 

even though she may appear somewhat larger upon close 
inspection. The thin woman finds light colors particu- 
larly becoming, as they both increase her size and lessen 
angularity by concealing contours. The figure that is 
badly proportioned frequently appears at its best in light 
colors, which always tend to make the silhouette incon- 
spicuous. 

Dark Colors Decrease Si^e and Reveal Silhouette 

Dark colors are quite opposite in their effect, as might 
be expected. They decrease the size of the wearer but 
emphasize the silhouette. The stout woman finds that 
they make her appear more slender but reveal uneven 
proportions, as in the hips or the bust. They may also 
call attention to her size by throwing her massive figure 
into relief against a light background. For street wear, 
against fairly dark backgrounds, a dark costume will make 
the silhouette less conspicuous. 

Dark colors also tend to make the figure appear heavier 
in actual weight, even though dimensions may be less. 
Therefore, while dark colors decrease the apparent size 
and are becoming to most stout women of well-propor- 
tioned figure, they should be used advisedly, as they will 
not always have the traditional slenderizing effect. On 
the other hand, dark colors are distinctive upon the ideal 
figure, emphasizing its pleasing contours and making it 
appear even more slender than it really is. The too-thin 
woman, more than any other type, must avoid dark colors, 
for they will make her appear thinner and reveal her 
angular outlines. 



158 Texture and Color Affect Silhouette and Size 

Bright Colors Increase Si^e and Reveal Silhouette 

Bright colors, vivid colors of full intensity, reflect light 
and increase the size of the surfaces they cover. At the 
same time, vivid colors make the silhouette conspicuous. 
Therefore, vivid, intense, bright colors are most becoming 
to the slender woman of good proportions. They may 
be used with care in fabrics and lines that conceal an- 
gularity of the too-thin woman, so that she profits by 
seeming larger without having her silhouette accented. 
Stout women, no matter what their proportions, should 
avoid bright colors. 

Dull Colors Decrease Si^e and Conceal Silhouette 

Dull, neutralized, or grayed colors decrease the ap- 
parent size of the wearer and make the silhouette incon- 
spicuous. Therefore, while a bright blue or a bright red 
dress would make a woman seem larger, a dull, soft, 
gray blue or a dull, soft, subdued red makes her seem 
smaller and does not emphasize the outlines of the figure. 

Warm Colors Are Difficult to Wear 

Like vivid colors, warm colors (red, orange, yellow, red- 
violet), colors which give an impression of warmth, in- 
crease the apparent size of the figure. A warm color is 
advancing, aggressive; seems nearer to the observer; and, 
therefore, makes surfaces that it covers seem larger. A 
warm, bright color most decidedly increases apparent 
size. Stout women of warm coloring, to whom warm 
colors are naturally suited, are greatly limited in choice of 



Texture and Color Affect Silhouette and Size 159 

color, if they are to make the most of both face and 
figure. Warm colors, except in very subdued or grayed 
intensities, should be avoided by all stout women. They 
are best on the well-proportioned slender woman, as the 
angular woman also finds them trying because they reveal 
her silhouette. 

Cool Colors Flatter All Figures 

Cool colors are receding, seem farther away from the 
eye, and, therefore, make surfaces they cover seem smaller. 
This is especially true if the color is neutralized or grayed, 
although any cool color — blue, green, blue-green, blue- 
violet — tends to make the figure seem smaller. No type 
of figure needs to avoid them. Stout women find cool 
colors much more becoming than warm colors. Those 
whose proportions are not perfect also find cool colors 
preferable to warm. The thin woman can wear them 
even though they may decrease size, because they soften 
the outlines, but never accentuate them. 



CHAPTER XV 




cvice^ 



ice*- J-ltat yl/lake ^cvcai 



*^k isproportionately large hips are a frequent fig- 
<=*•£-/ ure defect. Girls and women who have given little 
thought to their figures begin complaining that dresses 
are made too tight over the hips, until suddenly they dis- 
cover that it is their figures that have become wider across 
the hips, thighs, and lower back. If they are wise, they 
keep this defect a secret from the world. They will avoid 
those models apparently designed to emphasize the hips 
(becoming only to the slim almost hipless figure). They 
will hide large hips under carefully chosen lines that 
minimize the width of the hip and center attention else- 
where. 

Broad base triangle. A sleek, close coiffure or a small, 
close-fitting hat; trim, narrow shoulder lines; and a slim 
bodice, gradually widening into wider hips and flaring 
skirt, create a silhouette narrow at the top and broad at 
the base, a triangle that lacks grace and balance and, 
therefore, emphasizes the figure defect. 

A wide-brimmed hat, a collar giving a broad line at the 
shoulders, or a shoulder and sleeve cut to give breadth 

1 60 



How to Make Large Hips Less Evident 161 



Broad-base, triangular 
silhouette emphasizes 
hips; broad-shoulder line 
balances wide hips. 





Closely fitting hipline 
with flare below it re- 
veals faulty proportions; 
when the flare begins 
above the largest part of 
the hips it may conceal 
their actual contours. 



1 62 How to Make Large Hips Less Evident 

will give balance to the figure and make the hips seem 
narrower. A coat cut with slightly flaring lines, a flare 
beginning above the widest part of the hips, thus con- 
cealing them, may be balanced by width at the top of the 
figure. Sometimes both shoulder and hat width are 
needed, at other times one will be sufficient. A coat cut 
with swagger lines, the flare beginning at the shoulders, 
may effectively conceal heavy hips. Care must be taken, 
particularly when heavy fabrics are employed, to supply 
the necessary balance at the top of the figure. 

Full skirt better than straight lines, Straightline, close- 
fitting dresses or coats reveal the outlines of the figure and 
display the faulty proportions caused by too-large hips. 
Although dresses and coats of this type give length to the 
figure and tend to be slenderizing, they should be chosen 
and fitted with care. Those that are fitted too closely or 
are of clinging fabric defeat their purpose of giving 
slenderness by revealing those parts of the figure that have 
unpleasing lines. 

A wide, full skirt commencing sufficiently high above 
broad hips may conceal their actual outlines, making it 
appear that the garment, not the figure, possesses the ac- 
tual width. If the bodice is slender, emphasizing slim 
lines above the waist, the illusion of an entirely slender 
figure may be created. A bertha or scarf giving a wide 
shoulder line, or a neckline cut with horizontal lines, 
may be needed to give balance to the figure. A wide hat 
could, of course, also supply it. 

Horizontal lines to be avoided. Horizontal lines em- 
ployed in the skirt, particularly at the hips, lead the ob- 



How to Make Large Hips Less Evident 163 

server's eye across the figure, giving an impression of 
greater width than actually exists. Every effort, there- 
fore, should be made to avoid horizontal details at the 
hips or in the skirt when the hips are at all broad and out 
of proportion. Horizontal lines in the bodice, particu- 
larly high on the shoulders, or in the full-bloused waist 
aid in making the upper part of the figure balance the 
lower. 

Swathed hips difficult. Garments designed with 
tightly swathed hips not only reveal but actually increase 
the apparent size of the hips. Wrapped girdles and 
sashes add bulk, the tight line reveals actual contours, and 
the lines of the girdle are usually horizontal, further 
adding to apparent width. This style, so becoming to 
slim hips that may be revealed in their true outlines, 
should not be chosen by the woman with large hips unless 
other devices that slenderize the hips are employed in 
conjunction with the swathed hipline. As a general rule, 
it may be said that the woman with large hips should al- 
ways avoid the swathed hipline. 

A full bodice bloused above the hips makes the hips 
seem small by contrast with the wider lines above them. 
Therefore, garments made with moderately close-fitting 
straight hiplines and a bloused bodice tend to disguise 
large hips. This method of reducing the apparent size 
of the hips is best recommended to the rather tall or, at 
least, the slender woman, for it makes the entire figure 
seem wider and shorter. The swathed hipline, when 
worn by a woman with large hips, is best combined with 
a bloused manipulation. 



164 How to Make Large Hips Less Evident 




Closely fitted waistlines 
and swathed hips reveal 
size; a loosely fitting 
belt and bloused bodice 
make the hips seem 
smaller. 



Horizontal lines created 
by belts, yokes, and 
pockets all tend to em- 
phasize width of the 
hips; perpendicular lines 
created by seams or 
pleats minimize their 
width. 




How to Make Large Hips Less Evident 165 

Perpendicular lines, leading the eye up and down rather 
than across the figure, not only add height but decrease 
apparent width. Perpendicular lines may be introduced 
to overcome the trying effect of other details, such as the 
swathed hipline or the meeting of skirt and blouse. Pleats 
may be arranged so that they give this perpendicular 
movement, if spacings are chosen that, instead of leading 
the eye across the figure, put emphasis upon the length of 
the pleats. Panels and drapes or the ends of a sash may 
also supply perpendicular movement. 

Joining of skirt and bodice. The horizontal line created 
by a belt or by the joining of skirt and bodice enlarges 
the hips. This is especially true when the belt, the end of 
the overblouse, or the seaming of skirt and bodice comes 
at the widest place on the hips. A contrasting belt, like 
other horizontal trimming, very markedly enlarges the 
hips. 

The broadening effect of horizontal lines at the seaming 
of skirt and bodice may be avoided by the use of broken, 
curved, or oblique lines that carry the observer's eye up 
and down rather than directly across the figure. There 
are many of these devices to be found in present-day fash- 
ions, for the designers of the day are well aware of the 
flattering effect they have upon the figure. Therefore, 
garments employing these methods of reducing the hips 
may always be chosen for women with large hips. 

Sometimes curved or oblique lines, which, if correctly 
employed, decrease the size of the hips, will lead the eye 
outward to the largest part of the figure, high lighting its 
defects. When selecting garments for the woman with 



1 66 How to Make Large Hips Less Evident 




Definite horizontal join- 
ing enlarges hips; bro- 
ken, curving, or oblique 
lines minimize hips. 



Lines leading to the 
largest part of the hips 
increase its apparent 
size; F-lines leading eye 
toward center over 
widest part of figure 
and out to increase size 
at the waist make hips 
seem smaller. 




How to Make Large Hips Less Evident 167 

large hips, one should study every line, and determine 
where it leads the eye, whether it carries the eye outward 
beyond the figure, or whether it accentuates a figure defect. 
V- and U -shapes helpful. Pointed and oval shapes, V- 
and £/-lines, lead the eye toward the center of the figure, 
rather than accentuate the too-wide outlines. These 
shapes, therefore, may be advantageously used to decrease 
the apparent size of too-large hips. They are especially 
effective if they point downward, the narrowest point 
coming at or just below the widest portion of the hips. If 
they point upward, there is danger that the wide end of 
the V will lead the eye outward, the diverging lines center- 
ing attention on width rather than length. A V arranged 
with the wide portion at the shoulders, increasing the ap- 
parent width of the upper part of the body, the point at the 
hips decreasing their width, is extremely effective in equal- 
izing the figure with too-large hips. A jacket may either 
conceal large hips or make them seem larger according to 
its length; one ending just at the largest part of the hips 
tends to call attention to them, while one ending above the 
hips may, particularly if it is full or is worn open to give a 
loose line, make the hips seem smaller by contrast. The 
jacket ending below the hips may likewise conceal them. 
Long jackets, however, definitely tend to shorten the 
figure. 




CHAPTER XVI 



lawlvzctawt and <^4-vJLawieit 

Ioor posture, relaxed, sagging muscles, and excess fat 
that accumulates in bunches on the least-exercised 
parts of the anatomy cause enlarged diaphragms and ab- 
domens. These defects may occur separately or together. 
Pregnancy brings a similar but more exaggerated prob- 
lem. While it is difficult entirely to conceal too-great 
enlargements at this point, the apparent grace and pro- 
portions of the figure may be greatly improved by care- 
fully planned costumes carefully adjusted when worn. 

Garments with soft, concealing folds that build out the 
figure above and below the protruding curves will be 
found becoming to the woman with either a large dia- 
phragm or abdomen. The long V or surplice closing, 
which is effective in centering interest away from the cir- 
cumference of the large-hipped figure, is often the worst 
possible design. 

Foundation garments. A roll of flesh over the dia- 
phragm may be caused by a too-tight corset, which pushes 
the flesh up. A one-piece or combination foundation 
garment is frequently the wisest choice. Not all one-piece 

168 



Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 169 

garments are suitable, however. One that is designed to 
give restraint over the diaphragm, to flatten out this area, 
should be chosen. Sometimes light, flexible boning may 
extend over the diaphragm. Under no circumstances 
should the foundation garment be tight at the waist, as 
constriction there pushes the flesh up, thus enlarging the 
diaphragm. It is difficult to fit a separate corset so that 
it will not exaggerate the diaphragm. If one is chosen, it 
should be loose at the waist, fairly high in front and worn 
with a well-fitting brassiere that extends well down over 
the corset, holding the two garments together so that they 
create the effect of a one-piece foundation. 

For the woman with a large abdomen, a separate corset 
with a long brassiere is frequently preferable to the one- 
piece restraining garment, although the latter, with spe- 
cial abdominal support, may be satisfactory on some fig- 
ures, especially those having a large diaphragm as well as 
a large abdomen. 

Lingerie that is clinging or slight in quantity may per- 
mit the dress to fit too closely over the rounded dia- 
phragm and abdomen. 

Weight of dress. Unless the dress is constructed so that 
its weight is distributed, it will have a tendency to hang in 
a strained, tight line over the protruding abdomen or dia- 
phragm, making these badly proportioned parts of the 
figure unduly prominent. 

A two-piece dress, made with the skirt hanging on a 
bodice or lining, the blouse hanging free from the weight 
of the skirt, is frequently preferable. In a dress so con- 
structed, the weight of the skirt does not pull the blouse 



170 Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 

smooth and close over the protruding diaphragm. In 
many one-piece dresses, particularly those that are made 
with a heavy skirt, a full skirt, or one that is heavily 
trimmed, the dress is drawn down the length of the front, 
every bulge in the figure being made apparent. 

A number of cleverly constructed one-piece dresses de- 
signed for larger women have the weight distributed so 
that part is carried by the bodice lining. 

Boleros and jackets. A long, straight bolero, long 
enough to hang below the large diaphragm, may success- 
fully disguise it. The bolero, like the separate blouse in 
the two-piece dress, hangs below the protruding dia- 
phragm and, being free from the weight of the skirt, does 
not cling too closely to the figure. 

A short bolero — one that does not completely cover the 
diaphragm, but ends so that it reveals this figure defect — ■ 
is extremely unbecoming to the woman whose figure is 
large at this point. The bolero that hangs open at the 
front likewise reveals the bulging line. The most unbe- 
coming bolero of all is the one that curves away from the 
opening, the repetition of the curves emphasizing the pro- 
truding curves of the figure. 

A long, well-fitting jacket, one that fits easily though 
not too loosely, may be even more becoming than the 
long bolero, in that it gives longer lines, carrying the eye 
of the observer well below the protruding curves. If the 
abdomen as well as the diaphragm is large, the longer 
jacket is obviously much more becoming. Like the blouse 
of the two-piece dress, the jacket is not drawn close to the 
figure by the weight of the skirt. As the jacket usually 



Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 171 



The weight of a one- 
piece dress pulls the 
material tightly over the 
abdomen; a two-piece 
dress distributes the 
weight and hangs in 
more slender lines over 
the abdomen. 





The short bolero makes 
the diaphragm more 
conspicuous; a longer 
one balances figure and 
tends to conceal its de- 
fects. 



172 Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 

fits more loosely than the blouse, because it laps over, 
forming at least two folds of material over the front, the 
garment is further prevented from clinging and thus re- 
vealing the rounded diaphragm. Too many folds of 
the material should be avoided lest they give bulk and so 
increase the size of the diaphragm. 

A jacket that is worn open tends to draw attention to 
the figure revealed inside its opening. This is especially 
true if a blouse of contrasting color is worn under the open 
jacket. 

Cut of bodice. A loose, easy line over the bust and a 
loose armscye are necessary to prevent making the upper 
part of the figure appear unduly small in comparison 
with the large diaphragm, thus emphasizing the latter. 
Dresses that are too closely fitted at the top, those with 
tight narrow lines, make the middle of the figure appear 
grotesquely large and badly proportioned, high lighting 
defects that might be concealed by looser lines at the 
shoulders and bust. Sometimes lines that definitely in- 
crease the size of the upper part of the figure may be 
chosen. More frequently, however, a loose-fitting gar- 
ment is preferable to one that has actively broadening 
lines. But care must be taken that the garment fits. A 
too-large garment, one with a too-long shoulder line, 
destroys the line of the entire figure. 

Plain, unrelieved dress fronts reveal bulging curves and 
awkward proportions. Beads or other decorations over 
the protruding curves likewise accentuate them. A long 
jabot or a scarf arranged to fall in soft lines at the front 
aids in concealing the too-large abdomen. Discretion, 



Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 173 



The diaphragm is un- 
duly prominent when 
jacket is worn open; 
concealed by jacket 
worn closed. 





A jabot enlarging sil- 
houette at the upper 
part of the figure makes 
diaphragm less conspic- 
uous; flat, close lines at 
the neck reveal the dia- 
phragm and abdomen. 



174 Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 

however, must accompany its use. A scarf of conspicuous 
color or a jabot of bulky proportions might emphasize the 
abdomen by making that part of the figure the center of 
interest or by increasing the size of the silhouette at a 
point where it is already too large. Likewise, care must 
be taken that the scarf or jabot does not end just above the 
prominent part of the figure, thus centering attention near 
it and revealing rather than concealing it. In many cases, 
a dress must actually be tried on before one can be sure 
whether it will conceal the defect or tend to exaggerate 
it. Sometimes a slight adjustment, perhaps tacking a fold 
so that it will always fall in the most pleasing line, may 
be necessary to make a dress becoming to the woman 
whose figure is too full over the abdomen and diaphragm. 

A dress made with a full waist, bloused low over the 
hips, is effective in concealing the large diaphragm and, 
correctly placed, aids in concealing the large abdomen. 
The full waist, bloused so that it stands out from the 
figure above the waist, covers the bulge, enlarges the entire 
waistline, and, in this manner, equalizes the unevenly 
distributed flesh. If the waistline is placed too high, 
rather than over the hips, the curve of the diaphragm and 
the heavy waistline are revealed ; but with the low bloused 
line, a straight, smooth effect is gained at this point. 

Garments cut with a curve over the diaphragm, as are 
some surplice dresses that assume a curve at this point, 
serve to rivet attention on this too-round part of the figure, 
thereby exaggerating an unlovely line. 

Hemline and beltline. Too frequently one's attention is 
first centered on the large abdomen or diaphragm by a 



Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 175 



The low, bloused line 
conceals the diaphragm; 
diaphragm is accentu- 
ated by the surplice clos- 
ing which repeats its 
curve. 





If the hemline or belt- 
line rides up, the large 
abdomen is more con- 
spicuous; the hemline 
and beltline should be 
carefully adjusted. 



176 Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 

poorly fitted dress that rides up at the waist and hemline, 
disclosing the fact that the large abdomen "takes up" 
more material, causing the dress to be short in front. 
When the line is drawn up by the large abdomen, the 
hang of the skirt is also spoiled, frequently clinging close 
at the sides and flaring out abruptly in front in a manner 
which high lights the figure defect. Careful adjustment 
of the belt and hemline may make a very unbecoming 
dress suitable for the woman with this figure defect. 
Frequently the alteration may best be made by shortening 
the waist at the sides and back, thus giving the necessary 
additional length at the front and correcting both belt and 
hemline difficulties. At other times, the adjustment must 
be made at the hemline or at both points. Sometimes the 
girdle or belt may be lowered without an actual change in 
the length of the waist. 

A straight, loose line over the hips is effective in equal- 
izing the figure and is frequently obtained by a straight, 
loose girdle, which will retain its straight lines because the 
weight of the dress holds it away from the figure and pre- 
vents it from clinging above and below the bulging curve 
of the diaphragm and abdomen. The bulky girdle, with 
many folds of material, increases the apparent size of the 
figure more frequently than it conceals it. A bow or tie 
in the center of the girdle not only adds bulk, thereby in- 
creasing apparent size, but it also centers attention upon 
the figure defect. 

Decorative details over abdomen accent it. Obvious as 
their unbecoming effect usually seems to the discrimi- 
nating observer, many dresses intended for large women, 



Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 177 



Conspicuous bows, 
knots, or buckles over 
the abdomen enlarge 
the silhouette and call 
attention to the figure 
defect. 





F-line at waist may con- 
ceal or accent defect. 



178 Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 

who so frequently have too large an abdomen, are made 
with buckles or conspicuous decoration or ornamentation 
placed at the center of the girdle or directly over the ab- 
domen. Frequently radiating lines focus interest on the 
already too-conspicuous part of the anatomy. While it is 
bad design for the center of interest of any costume to be 
so far removed from the face, this is especially serious 
when interest is centered upon a figure defect. Decora- 
tion placed near the face may, if sufficiently interesting, 
distract attention from the figure defect. 

V-line at waist. A F-line at the waist is frequently 
much more becoming than a straight line, but it will ac- 
cent rather than conceal the large abdomen if it is in- 
correctly placed. While a F-line that dips down in the 
front may give a slender waist and hipline, which aids in 
concealing the enlarged abdomen, the inverted F-line 
tends to accent the large abdomen, making it seem still 
more conspicuous. Straight F-lines are preferable to 
those formed by curves, as a curved line tends to exag- 
gerate the too-great curve of the abdomen. 

Maternity Wear 

The problem of finding suitable apparel for maternity 
wear is most easily solved if emphasis is laid upon the selec- 
tion of becoming lines in styles that hide the contours of 
the figure. If the question of size only is considered, the 
contours of the figure may be emphasized by the models 
that permit adjustment of size. 

Wrapover models. Dresses made in coat lines wrap- 
ping over at the front may be either extremely becoming 



Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 179 

and satisfactory, or they may be the worst possible choice 
for maternity wear. Those models that emphasize the 
enlarged contours usually have a curving surplice line, 
which emphasizes the large curve over the abdomen. A 
surplice line that ends at the waist or hipline is less be- 
coming than one that begins at the shoulder and ends at 
the hem and gives a long line, which increases the ap- 
parent height of the figure without placing any emphasis 
upon its circumference. Conspicuous buckles or bows 
used as fastenings of wrapover models further accentuate 
the lines that the wearer wishes to conceal. 

Plain surfaces. Large areas of plain, unbroken sur- 
faces are usually unbecoming, especially so if the color is 
bright or the texture shiny and conspicuous. Seamings 
or folds of the material, which break up the surface with- 
out making it either bulky or fussy, make the full con- 
tours of the figure less evident. Plain surfaces are even 
more difficult when the material is stretched tightly over 
the figure. 

Contrasts of color and texture. Pronounced contrasts of 
color or of texture make the figure more conspicuous 
and, in so doing, make its defects more apparent. A con- 
trast between skirt and blouse obviously must be avoided. 
Contrasts creating a perpendicular panel, such as a blouse 
showing at the front of an open coat or jacket, may be 
equally disastrous, as they concentrate attention upon the 
front of the figure. For this reason, jackets, unless large 
enough to be worn closed, are not becoming models for 
maternity wear. 

Loose, shapeless garments. The garment should not be 



180 Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 

loose and shapeless, merely large enough without being 
interesting or of good design. Loose dresses, which hang 
from the shoulders to the hem, cling closely to the front of 
the figure and make its outlines more apparent. A belt 
adjusted in fairly low, loose lines may make an unbecom- 
ing dress of this character becoming. Two-piece dresses, 
with the skirt hung on a bodice and an overblouse or tunic 
hung loosely over it, offer an effective means of distribu- 
ting the weight of the garment so that the weight of the 
skirt does not pull the blouse close and tight against the 
abdomen. Underwear of soft, non-bulky but not unduly 
clinging character is helpful. 

Foundation garments. A maternity corset must be 
expertly fitted for comfort and protection. One of its 
chief services is so to distribute the weight of the abdo- 
men that part of it is -borne by the broad lower back. It 
should permit adjustments that continue to give smooth 
lines over which outer garments may be worn becomingly. 

Jabots and revers may gracefully conceal figure. Jabots 
with long, loose folds that end below the largest part of 
the figure are among the most becoming lines possible 
for maternity wear. The jabot beginning high about the 
neck and filling out the shoulders, which may seem too 
small for the enlarged body, is usually becoming. It 
conceals the lines of the bust as well as of the abdomen, 
thus making the figure appear more normal. 

More tailored revers may, if long enough, also aid in 
hiding the contours of the figure. Long scarf ends on 
coats or dresses may be at once modish and becoming. 
However, a scarf tied near the waistline may add bulk to 



Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 181 

the abdomen without hiding it in the least. As this is 
usually more a matter of adjustment than of the original 
design of the garment, it is possible for the wearer to ad- 
just the scarf becomingly. 

Low fullness equalizes silhouette. A skirt that is full 
enough at the bottom to give width to the lower part of 
the silhouette equalizes the outlines of the figure and 
makes its enlargement less apparent. If a skirt is narrow, 
clinging close to the knees and legs, the middle of the 
figure will seem much larger than the bottom. Bulky 
fullness near the hips or waistline must be avoided. Flar- 
ing lines, cut to avoid bulk near the waistline and releasing 
fullness at the bottom of the skirt, are usually a becoming 
choice. 

Belt should not curve up at front. Special attention 
should be given to adjustment of the belt, so that it will 
not pull the dress up in front. A slightly uneven hem- 
line, provided it is by design and not an ill-adjustment 
caused by the enlargement of the figure, may be graceful 
in relieving the awkwardness of maternity wear. The 
excessively uneven hemline with long trailing ends usu- 
ally requires more poise and bearing than is natural to 
the pregnant woman. Beltlines designed to curve up- 
ward are awkward for maternity wear, because the up- 
ward-curving line enlarges the apparent size of the 
abdomen. 

Entire figure demands larger sizes. In choosing gar- 
ments to be adapted to maternity wear, it is well to realize 
that the entire figure, not just the abdomen, becomes 
larger. The general enlargement makes fitting easier, 



1 82 Modifying Enlarged Diaphragm — Abdomen 

rather than more difficult, as a size giving ample room at 
waist and hips may be used without requiring great altera- 
tion. It is usually advisable, however, to alter the lines 
of the shoulders, taking care that the armscye is well 
placed, as a trim sleeve and shoulder line adds to the grace 
and shapeliness of the entire figure. The armscye should 
not be placed high enough to make the shoulders appear 
narrow, for moderate width of shoulder aids in giving 
balance to a wide hipline. 



CHAPTER XVII 



^J—iiie^ yVL&JlLTuu 




t 



ina the J-.axae d^tit& 



' 1 HE DISPROPORTIONATELY LARGE BUST, which gives the 

J- individual an awkward and decidedly mature ap- 
pearance, may be greatly modified by the lines of the ap- 
parel worn. In fact, during the last few years fewer 
women possess extremely large busts, for modern methods 
of dressing, particularly modern corseting, minimize the 
too-generous proportions. 

A corset or other restraining garment that is tight and 
stiff at the waist, particularly over the abdomen and dia- 
phragm, pushes the flesh upward, increasing the actual 
size of the bust and, at the same time, making it appear 
larger by contrast with the constricted waist and hipline. 
One can readily demonstrate this by pressing the hands 
over the abdomen and diaphragm, pushing them in, and 
noticing the resulting increase in the size of the bust. 

The correctly fitted restraining garment molds the fig- 
ure into unbroken lines, smooth, flowing curves. It al- 
lows the flesh to assume a nearly normal position, but it 
restrains it to smooth, firm contours. 

Uplift brassieres with a divided bust line give the high 
line occurring naturally in youth, but the extreme uplift 
may make the large bust much more conspicuous, some- 
times making it several inches larger than its natural bust 

183 



184 Lines Modifying the Large Bust 

measurement. Pronounced bust lines are at present the 
fashionable and accepted ideal for the feminine figure, yet 
only a decade ago the extremely flat, boyish figure was the 
desired and required line. For this reason many women 
who failed to achieve a totally breastless effect when the 
boyish figure was in may still feel that their breasts are 
larger and more conspicuous than they should be. Some- 
times they are mistaken in their desire to create a bustless 
effect. This chapter is, of course, intended for women 
who really should minimize and conceal the size of their 
bust line. 

Narrow s\irt emphasizes upper part of figure. A nar- 
row skirt and close-fitting lines at hips and waist make the 
upper part of the figure appear larger in comparison with 
the slender lines below. A high belt, tight enough to 
accent the curve of the normal waistline, is extremely un- 
becoming, as it makes the large bust much more apparent. 

Width at the lower part of the figure makes the bust 
appear smaller by lessening the contrast. Wide, flaring 
skirts and those with horizontal lines, which make the 
hips appear broader, tend to bring the upper part of the 
figure into proportion, giving balance to the entire figure 
and minimizing its defects. 

Closely fitted nec\ and shoulder ungraceful. Severe, 
close lines at the neck and shoulder make the bust appear 
larger by contrast. The dress or coat that is darted to 
make it narrow at the shoulders and wider at the bust 
will, in most instances, tend to increase the curve of the 
bust. An expert tailor may use this device successfully 
when fitting the woman with the large bust, but the effect 



Lines Modifying the Large Bust 



185 



Narrow skirt empha- 
sizes upper part of fig- 
ure; flaring skirt and 
low belt equalize figure. 





Horizontal lines in 
waist increase width; 
perpendicular lines give 
length. 



1 86 Lines Modifying the Large Bust 

is usually unbecoming to the figure of this type. Plain, 
close-fitting necklines, particularly those without collars 
or with high collars, are very difficult to wear. 

Soft, loose, graceful collars and long, draped jabots are 
particularly becoming to the figure with the large bust. 
The loose, soft collars tend to bring the neck and shoul- 
ders into proportion with the bust, while the jabot con- 
ceals the actual outlines and thus minimizes the size of 
the bust. Jabots beginning above the largest part of the 
figure, hanging to the waist or below, are most becoming. 
Self -col or jabots are more becoming than those of a con- 
trasting color, which have a tendency to attract attention to 
the figure. 

Perpendicular lines give length. A principle, seemingly 
so obvious that it would not be worthy of mention were it 
not so frequently violated, is that horizontal lines increase 
the apparent size of the upper part of the figure, at the 
same time accenting the large bust. Yokes, square neck- 
lines, and shorter bolero effects create horizontal move- 
ment. 

Perpendicular lines not only give length, thereby de- 
creasing apparent width, but, if well spaced, break up the 
surface, making the breadth seem much less 'than it ac- 
tually is. It is, however, important that the placing of 
perpendicular lines be carefully controlled, for too many 
of them, particularly if evenly spaced, may lead the eye 
across the figure, rather than up and down, thus increas- 
ing its width rather than its length. 

V-line reduces apparent size. Rounded and curved 
lines used in the waist tend to accentuate the too-full bust. 



Lines Modifying the Large Bust 187 

This tendency is apparent whatever direction the rounded 
lines assume, but is particularly evident when they are 
combined with horizontal effects. Oval or ^/-shaped 
necklines, beads ending in a wide curve, particularly if 
the beads are large and round, are unbecoming, especially 
if the curve comes at the largest part of the figure. 

F-necklines, deeper F-shapes with vestee fronts, V- 
seamings, and similar lines, which lead the eye toward the 
center of the figure, reduce its apparent size. Care must 
always be taken that the wide part of the V , the diverging 
rather than the converging lines, does not come at the 
largest point of the bust. Instead, the point of the V 
should come just below the fullest part of the figure, as 
this aids in focusing attention in toward the center of the 
figure without accenting the fullest part. 

Loose folds tend to conceal contours. Garments that 
fit closely reveal contours and emphasize rather than de- 
crease size. A dress fitting tightly, with a strained line 
across the bust, accentuates its curves unduly and makes 
it appear even larger than its actual dimensions. An ill- 
fitting sleeve and too small armscye may give a tight ap- 
pearance to the entire blouse. Shiny surfaces, which in 
themselves tend to increase size and to high light unde- 
sirable curves, further accentuate the unbecoming effect 
of tight-fitting bodices. Transparent materials, especially 
when worn over tight-fitting slips, likewise emphasize the 
too-large bust. 

The large, loose blouse, hanging straight above slim 
hips, may effectively conceal the actual lines of the upper 
part of the figure, giving the impression that the entire 



i88 



Lines Modifying the Large Bust 



Curved lines in waist 
accentuate bust; F-line 
reduces apparent size. 





>- 



Closely fitted neck and 
shoulder contrast with 
large bust; soft collars 
and jabots give graceful 
concealment. 



Lines Modifying the Large Bust 



189 



figure is slender. A waist that is bloused at the hips so 
that it hangs almost straight from shoulders to hips, or a 
loose jacket or long-bolero effect, will frequently accom- 
plish this result. Actual bulk over the bust should, of 
course, be avoided. Heavy fur facings in coats, bulk ow- 
ing to cumbersome double-breasted effects, should also 
be avoided. 

Light-Colored Blouse Makes Upper Figure Heavy 

A light-colored blouse in contrast with a dark skirt 
makes the upper part of the figure seem larger, heavier, 
than the lower, thus accentuating the out-of-proportion 
bustline. If the colors are vivid as well as bright, this 
effect is further increased. A light satin blouse still fur- 
ther reveals the too-full line of the bust. 




Light-colored blouse makes upper part of figure seem larger and 
heavier; solid color tends to equalize the figure. 



190 Lines Modifying the Large Bust 

An entire dress or coat of one color tends to equalize 
the proportions of the figure and, therefore, is most becom- 
ing to the woman with any irregular proportion, particu- 
larly a large bust. A solid color is likewise usually better 
than figured material, especially if the design is large or 
the pattern conspicuous. 



CHAPTER XVIII 






wtwtave 



j^Iqund shoulders, due either to structural deformity 
*/\ or to poor posture, may be made less evident by 
means of costumes selected and fitted to minimize the 
defect. 

Armscye and set-in sleeve becoming. Raglan and ki- 
mono sleeves exaggerate round shoulder lines, making 
them appear even more ungraceful than their actual con- 
tours. Even persons with normal shoulders may appear 
stooped and round-shouldered when wearing garments 
cut with these types of sleeves. This is particularly true of 
stout women who have a roll of flesh at the back of the 
neck and between the shoulder blades. Women who 
have even a slight tendency to stooped or rounded shoul- 
ders, who carry their heads too-far forward, should avoid 
both kimono and raglan sleeves and shoulder lines. 

Peasant blouses with gathered and smocked necklines 
are usually disastrous to the round-shouldered figure, 
tending as they do to make any figure appear stooped. 
Sometimes for this reason, however, they may give the 
appearance that the costume, not the figure, is at fault. 

191 



192 Lines that Improve Round Shoulders 



A carefully fitted shoulder line, with an armscye care- 
fully cut to come at the structural point of the joining of 
shoulder and arm, is most becoming to the round-shoul- 
dered woman. An armscye coming too high on the 
shoulder may call attention to the shoulders, while one 




Kimono and raglan sleeves greatly emphasize round shoulders; 
carefully placed armscye and set-in sleeve lessens round-shouldered 
appearance. 

that is too wide or too low down on the arm gives much 
the effect of the kimono sleeve, exaggerating the rounded 
shoulders. A normal, easy-fitting, set-in sleeve, there- 
fore, should be the unvarying choice of the stoop-shoul- 
dered woman. 

Shoulder seam slanting bac\ imperative. A shoulder 
seam placed too-far forward, in front of the natural center 
of the figure, makes the back seem much larger and more 
prominent, and round shoulders much more conspicuous. 
If the shoulder seam slants forward, its line further in- 
creases the curve of the shoulders. Even a shoulder line 
placed in normal position, on the high or center point of 



Lines that Improve Round Shoulders 193 



the shoulders, gives a round-shouldered effect, if it slants 
forward. 

A shoulder seam placed slightly back of the normal 
center line, particularly one that slants gently back, posses- 
ses an almost miraculous power of making the shoulders 
appear thrown back in a straight, erect attitude. So im- 
portant is the effect of the correctly placed shoulder seam 





Shoulder seam slanting 
forward unbecoming; 
shoulder seam slanting 
back very helpful. 



and armscye that a special fitting and alteration is ad- 
visable for every woman whose beauty of figure is lost 
because of a rounded-shoulder line. 

Correctly placed mass at bac\ becoming. Massive, 
heavy details at the front of the neck and shoulders ap- 
pear actually to pull the body forward, making the shoul- 
ders more stooped. A scarf with longer ends in the front, 
a bow, a flower, or other conspicuous trimming details 
placed at the front, or long, heavy beads, make the shoul- 
ders assume a more stooped appearance. 

Longer scarf ends at the back of the neck, or similar 
detail correctly placed to give slightly greater weight at 
the back, may appear to pull the shoulders back, giving 
them apparently straighter lines, and thus making round 



194 Lines that Improve Round Shoulders 



shoulders much less evident. Placement becomes largely 
a matter of individual study, observing the effect of each 
line upon the individual. As a general rule, the lines 
should be long and the weight placed low, so that at- 
tention is centered below the rounded-shoulder blades. 
Masses placed high in the back may be effective in filling 
out the too-great curve above the rounded shoulders, but 
will sometimes, if too heavy or poorly placed, act much as 





Heavy details in front 
unbecoming; correctly 
placed mass at back be- 
coming. 



do masses at the front of the shoulders, appearing to 
weigh the shoulders down to more stooped and rounded 
contours. 

Low, round neckline accentuates defect. Low, round 
necklines repeat the curve of the shoulders, thereby mak- 
ing them much more apparent. An evening dress cut 
with a low curved line outlining the round shoulders at 
once reveals and accentuates their defects. If there is de- 
cided contrast in color and texture between the dress and 
skin of the shoulders, the unbecoming effect will be espe- 
cially marked. 

A square or pointed neckline does much to overcome 



Lines that Improve Round Shoulders 195 

the rounded contours of the shoulders. These lines 
should be carefully studied, and placed so that they come 
at the most pleasing point. The square neckline, in par- 
ticular, must be carefully handled, for its lines are in de- 
cided opposition to the too-great curves of the shoulders 
and may accent them by contrast. The point on a F4ine 




Low, round neckline unbecoming; square or pointed line better 

should come well below the curve of the shoulders, other- 
wise it may center attention on the defect, its converging 
lines leading the observer's eye to the curved spine of the 
wearer. 

Collar aids in concealing defect. Collarless necklines 
too frequently reveal the unpleasing curves at the back of 
the neck and shoulders. When tucks are used to narrow 
the garment at the back of the neck, they often call further 
attention to awkward shoulder lines. As a collarless 
neckline in a daytime dress must be rounded in order to 
be high, its curves serve to accent defects of posture. 

If a collarless neckline is to be worn at all, it must be 



196 Lines that Improve Round Shoulders 

carefully adjusted so that its outlines come at the least 
unbecoming position in the round shoulders. It is fre- 
quently possible so to adjust it that its line breaks the most 
pronounced curve of the stooped shoulders. 

A collar, if well shaped and correctly placed, may cor- 
rect the too-great curve of shoulders and may fill out the 
back of the neck, giving a straight line. A soft, crushed 
collar or scarf; a straight collar rolling up and away from 
the back of the neck, points or straight ends hanging 
down in the back may all be becoming. A flat, round 
collar, like round necklines, is exceedingly unbecoming. 

Long, pointed cape is wearable. Round, circular capes 
add to the round lines of the shoulders, producing a 
bunchy, awkward figure. Short, round capelets, those 
that are flared and circular over the shoulders, are much 
more unbecoming than longer ones, although all circu- 
lar capes give much the effect of kimono sleeves. They 
should, therefore, be avoided by all women possessing 
stooped shoulders. 

Long, well-fitted capes, particularly those with long, 
pointed or slender, oval lines, may conceal the defective 
shape of the figure. They may, therefore, be actively be- 
coming rather than unbecoming as are the circular capes. 
Some capes have lines so graceful that they almost en- 
tirely conceal the defects of even the hunchbacked. Long, 
loose, back panels, having much the effect of a slender 
cape, are also frequently becoming. 

Straight hanging waist conceals round shoulders. A 
definite waistline, revealing the curve of the figure, makes 
rounded shoulders more apparent. A belt worn at the 



Lines that Improve Round Shoulders 197 






Circular cape exaggerates defect; long, pointed cape more wear- 
able. 

Definite waistline reveals round shoulders; loose, hanging waist 
conceals round shoulders. 

normal waistline, dresses or coats fitting in close princess 
lines, or fabrics that cling, revealing the contours of the 
body, are especially unbecoming to the woman with 
round shoulders. 

A Moused waist; a long, unbelted overblouse; a jacket; 
bolero; or other device for supplying a waist that hangs 
loose and free from the figure aids in concealing the curve 
of the spine and, thus, makes stooped shoulders less ap- 
parent. Full-length, one-piece garments, even though 
lines are not fitted to the figure, are more likely to cling, 
because of their weight. 

Hat may minimize shoulder defects. A drooping hat 
brim, especially a wide drooping brim, gives unwelcome 
emphasis to stooped shoulders. If the hat is larger in the 
front, its drooping brim seems to pull the shoulders fur- 
ther forward, while, if there is a brim in the back also, it 
repeats the rounded lines of the shoulders and, by so doing, 



198 Lines that Improve Round Shoulders 



accentuates them. Even a small hat drooping greatly at 
the sides will make the shoulders appear more stooped. 

A hat carefully selected to overcome individual defects 
may give balance to the figure and distract attention from 
its shortcomings. A hat of moderate size, rather than the 



<^ 





Drooping brim emphasizes round shoulders; brim turning up at 
the back is becoming. 

extremely close-fitting, -brimless hat, or the hat with large, 
drooping brim, is preferable. The brim that turns at least 
slightly upward is preferable, although one that turns up 
abruptly, creating a close-turban effect, is trying, if the 
shoulders are markedly stooped. A coat collar filling in 
the curve at the back of the neck and thus making the back 
appear straight will simplify the problem of hat lines. A 
small turban may be very becoming when worn with a 
coat collar or with a fur scarf, but most trying without 
them. 

If the hair is worn in a loosely waved mass at the back 
of the neck, it tends to make round shoulders less evident. 
Conspicuous hair styles should, however, be avoided lest 
they center attention at the back of the neck. 



CHAPTER XIX 



e 



u 



n 




et c^htnt 



7 he large upper arm makes the fitting of dresses and 
coats difficult and requires a size or even two sizes 
larger than necessary for the body itself. When the neces- 
sary material is available, a gusset or insert in the sleeve 
provides the best means of altering garments to fit the 
woman with a large upper arm. 

Correctly placed armscye with loose sleeve. In at- 
tempting to obtain slim lines, the shoulder is frequently 
fitted too narrow, the armscye too high and too tight, and 
the sleeve too narrow. This type of too-small dress em- 
phasizes rather than minimizes the too-great size of the 
arm. The tight sleeve reveals its actual contours, while 
the tight armscye and narrow shoulderline make the arm 
appear to stand out from the body, to seem larger in pro- 
portion to the figure. 

A dress with a correctly placed armscye, one that is 
sufficiently large to avoid constriction of the upper arm 
and that is placed at the edge of the shoulder, at the struc- 
tural point, so that it does not make the arm stand out 
from the body as does the too-high shoulder line, does 

i99 



200 Methods of Hiding Large Upper Arm 

much to minimize the too-large upper arm. A correctly 
fitting armscye will require a sleeve sufficiently loose to 
conceal the actual outlines of the arm. 

While the dress that is obviously several sizes too big, 
except in sleeve width, makes the wearer appear awk- 
ward and shapeless (although it may hide the too-large 
arm), a loose, carefully fitted dress may hide the defective 
proportions of the arm and, at the same time, give sym- 
metry to the entire figure. Many modern garments are 
cleverly constructed with bias use of the material, with 
darts and unusually shaped sections that allow the gar- 
ment to hang in loose, graceful lines and, at the same 




A high armscye in a tight sleeve makes a large upper arm more 
conspicuous; a loose sleeve with normal or slightly low armscye 
conceals this defect. 

time, to fit the figure so well that it unmistakably belongs 
on it and does not appear several sizes too large. 

Loose bodice makes arms less large in contrast. A 
loose, bloused bodice, hanging in soft, loose lines, makes 
the arms seem relatively smaller and their outlines less 



Methods of Hiding Large Upper Arm 201 

definite. On the other hand, a close, tightly fitting bodice 
makes the arms seem larger in relation to the compara- 
tively slimmer lines of the torso. The severe, close lines 
of the bodice also make the outlines of both the sleeves and 
the bodice clear-cut and distinct. Severe, tailored lines 
will likewise make the outlines more definite, even if the 
garment is not tightly fitted. Soft types of garments give 
less distinct outlines and permit the sleeve lines to merge 
more readily into the body of the dress. 

Cape or scarf may conceal arm in sleeveless dress. The 
sleeveless dress, particularly one of dark color, makes the 
arm more conspicuous. The woman with a large upper 




A cape, a scarf, a dropped sleeve, or a jacket with sleeves is better 
than the sleeveless dress on the figure with a large upper arm. 

arm will find a dress made with a cape or scarf collar, with 
a drape hanging partially over the arm, much more be- 
coming than the sleeveless dress with harsh, unrelieved 
armscye. The separate jackets, which are so frequently 
part of the ensemble at all times of day, are especially be- 
coming to the woman whose arms are too large. She will 



202 Methods of Hiding Large Upper Arm 



find it advantageous to wear them with all dinner and 
evening gowns. These jackets may also be added to 
the dress with transparent, too-revealing sleeves. 

A contrasting fabric should never be used in the sleeve 
of a dress worn by a woman with large arms. It is as 
unbecoming as the sleeveless dress, having much the same 
effect as does a dark dress that exposes the arms. Like- 
wise, if a woman whose arms tend to be big chooses a 
sleeveless dress, it will be more pleasing in a light color 
that does not contrast too decidedly with flesh tones, for 
contrast makes the arms more conspicuous. 

Fabric should be employed in perpendicular feeling. 
Pattern in the fabric, even a slight rib in a weave, may 
greatly increase the apparent size of the arm unless it is 
employed to give a perpendicular instead of a horizontal 
line. Conspicuous or large-figured designs should be 




A sleeve cut in one with the blouse may make the upper arm 
look larger because the fabric over the arm is in horizontal-line 
direction; a set-in sleeve cut lengthwise of the fabric is more 
slenderizing. 



Methods of Hiding Large Upper Arm 203 

avoided, since only indefinite patterns of not too-vivid col- 
oring are appropriate to the poorly proportioned figure, 
especially to one with large arms, since a sleeve must be 
unrelieved by the folds that may break the pattern in 
other parts of the dress. 

Satin, because of its shiny surface, catches the high lights 
and unmercifully reveals bulging curves, and is especially 
unbecoming to the woman with large arms when it is 
employed with the sheen extending across rather than up 
and down the figure. Satin so employed causes the eye 
of the observer to travel across the figure from arm to 
arm, attracts notice to the arm, and centers attention on the 
width rather than the length of the arm. 

Soft, lightweight, opaque fabrics are desirable. Bulky 
fabrics increase the apparent bulk of the figure, especially 
of the arms, causing them to stand out stiffly from the 
body. Stiff fabrics are equally disastrous to the woman 
with large upper arms. 




A clinging, transparent fabric reveals the large upper arm; an 
opaque fabric is more becoming. 



204 Methods of Hiding Large Upper Arm 

'A thin, transparent, clinging fabric reveals the arms in 
a most uncompromising manner. Large arms frequently 
appear more evident when a thin and clinging transparent 
covering attracts attention to them without concealing 
them than when no sleeves at all are worn. A soft, com- 
pact, lightweight, but not transparent or clinging fabric 
that conceals the actual outlines of the arm is much more 
becoming than the too-revealing chiffons, georgettes, and 
laces. Double thickness of transparent fabrics, a double 
chiffon or georgette, a lace lining with chiffon or net, 
make these fabrics becoming instead of unbecoming and 
unsuitable to the woman with large arms. 



CHAPTER XX 
the <^/taiVLe 

7 HE GRACE OF THE ENTIRE FIGURE as Well as that of the 
feet, ankles, and legs is affected by the suitability of 
footwear to the physique of the wearer and to the cos- 
tume with which it is worn. Although the feet should 
be inconspicuously dressed, since not they, but the face, 
should be the center of interest, they should, nevertheless, 
appear graceful and well-groomed to the eye that does 
pause to examine them. The desirable foot is long and 
slender in itself, and aids in making the figure appear 
tall and slender. 

Contrasts to Be Avoided 

Contrasts in the color of the costume, the hosiery, and 
the footwear should be avoided whenever possible and al- 
ways kept inconspicuous, so that a long line is preserved, 
which will give slenderness to legs, ankles, and feet and 
to the figure as a whole. Light hose contrasting with 
dark footwear, and both shoes and hosiery contrasting 
with the costume, make the legs appear much larger, not 
only because the light color itself increases their apparent 
size, but because horizontal lines are created by the con- 

205 



2o6 Footwear, Foundation for the Figure 

trast between the hose and dress and the hose and shoes. 
The ankles will appear much heavier because the line of 
the shoe is accented by the contrast with the hosiery. The 
line at the top, especially when oxfords or strapped shoes 
are worn, tends to lead the eye of the observer around the 
ankle, thereby increasing its apparent width. 

When it is possible to have the dress, hose, and shoes of 
nearly the same color, as when beige is used in all three 
items, the feet and legs become relatively unimportant and 
inconspicuous, and even appear slender upon examina- 
tion. When it is not possible to have these three items 
match, as when a dress of a color not used in hosiery and 
footwear is worn, an attempt should be made to have ap- 
proximately the same color values (degrees of lightness 
or darkness) in the costume, hosiery, and footwear. 

When a light or medium value is chosen for the dress or 
coat, beige or gray tones in hosiery and footwear may be 
chosen to give long, unbroken lines to the figure. When 
darker shades are worn, dark shoes may match the value 
of the dress, even though hosiery of lighter tones is worn. 
Darker tones of the modish hosiery shades tend to give 
additional height. 

Although contrasting shoes are sometimes permissible, 
even advisable, those lighter than the costume are always 
poor costume design. A light color does not make a fit- 
ting foundation for a dark object, since it does not seem 
to give sufficient support. Light-colored footwear worn 
with a dark costume is therefore difficult for any type of 
woman, but especially so for the heavy woman, as the 
light-colored shoes make her feet seem an inadequate base 



Footwear, Foundation for the Figure 207 






Contrasting textures break length of foot and figure. 
Long, slender shoe increases length of foot and figure. 





A wide strap gives width and heaviness to foot. 







Intricate arrangement of straps centers attention on foot. 

A low-heeled, thick-soled shoe with a heavy welt is less becom- 
ing than a walking shoe with a heel of medium height and a 
medium weight sole. 



208 Footwear, Foundation for the Figure 

for the massive dark bulk of the figure. Dark shoes with 
moderately dark hosiery in one of the darker tones of the 
mode will be much more pleasing. The ankles will ap- 
pear less large than in light-colored shoes, and there will 
be less break in length of line, producing the effect of a 
firmer but less conspicuous foundation, which will give 
grace to the entire figure. 

If footwear contrasting with the costume is worn, the 
color of the slippers should be repeated high on the figure, 
so that the eye of the observer is carried from the feet to 
the head in an uninterrupted sweep that gives an impres- 
sion of height. Contrasting footwear, however, is most 
successful on the tall, slender figure. 

The length of the foot and of the figure alike is short- 
ened when shoes employing contrasting leathers are worn. 
A heel of contrasting color lessens the possible height of 
the figure by the height of the contrasting heel. When 
the front and back portions of the shoe are of contrasting 
materials, the length of the foot is shortened while the 
width is increased by the horizontal line created by the 
contrast. If contrasting colors are employed, the break in 
line is even more evident than when contrasting leathers 
are combined. In either event, a shoe of one texture and 
one color is most likely to enhance the appearance of both 
the feet and the figure. 

Long, Slender Shoe Gives Length to Foot and 

Figure 

In shoes that are long and slender (they should, of 
course, fit the foot but should assume as long and slender 



Footwear, Foundation for the Figure 209 

lines as is possible with correct fitting), not only will the 
feet, ankles, and legs appear more slender, but the entire 
figure will appear to have gained added height and slen- 
derness. The heavy woman who selects shoes too small 
for her makes her figure seem heavier, not only by the 
awkward gait produced by the small shoes, but by the in- 
adequate foundation that noticeably small shoes give to 
the bulky figure. A longer, more slender shoe gives a 
foundation of better proportion and, at the same time, 
gives an impression of slenderness that may be transferred 
to the general impression one receives of the figure as a 
whole. 

The tall, thin woman with an extremely long foot may 
find a moderately round toe, which may be worn shorter, 
in a length more closely related to the actual length of the 
foot, more becoming. It is the tall, thin woman, also, 
who may wear strapped pumps to advantage. 

Straps shorten foot. The opera pump, the plain, strap- 
less pump, displays the long lines of the feet and legs 
without making any break or division of their length. 
The wearer, therefore, appears taller, and her legs longer 
and slimmer, in footwear of this type. Strapped models 
tend to modify the length of the instep and make the 
ankles appear less slim. They, therefore, make the entire 
figure appear less tall. 

Since opera pumps are not suited to all feet nor suitable 
for all purposes, it is important that the size and shape of 
the straps be considered carefully. 

A curving strap makes less horizontal break than one 
going straight across the foot. A wide strap gives a 



210 Footwear, Foundation for the Figure 

heavy feeling to the foot, creating horizontal lines, which 
add to the apparent width of the feet and ankles and fre- 
quently shorten the apparent height of the figure as well. 
Two or three straps create much the effect of a wide strap, 
placing emphasis upon width. A single narrow strap is 
frequently the most becoming shoe the short, heavy 
woman can wear, for, correctly placed on a well-cut shoe, 
such a type of one-strap slipper supports the foot and pre- 
vents it from sagging at the sides. 

Intricate elaborate arrangements of straps center atten- 
tion upon the feet, making them so unduly conspicuous 
that the figure appears shorter because the eye of the ob- 
server is not allowed to travel to the top of the figure, ap- 
preciating the full height of the wearer. Numerous 
straps likewise break the length of the foot, making it 
appear shorter and wider than its actual size. A simple 
opera pump,*allowing the eye to travel in an uninterrupted 
sweep down the length of the legs, ankles, and feet, makes 
the entire figure appear more slender and the feet and 
ankles appear especially slender and graceful. Many 
short, heavy women cannot wear the pump without straps 
because it gives insufficient support, causing the ankles and 
side of the foot to sag and the shoe to bulge at the sides. 
Those whose feet are strong enough to permit the wearing 
of the simple strapless pump usually find it very be- 
coming. 

Wing tip gives more slenderness than square. The 
shoe with a straight or square tip is usually more difficult 
to wear than the shoe with a wing tip, as the former 
lessens the apparent length of the foot, while the latter, 
even when of a contrasting color, tends to give accent to 



Footwear, Foundation for the Figure 211 

length, at least enough of a feeling of length to counteract 
the shortening influence produced by the contrast. If 
heavy stitching and perforations are used, either the 
straight or the wing tip is likely to make the shoe seem 
heavier. 

Moderately High Heel Is Usually Wise Choice 

Although the extremely high heel adds actual height to 
the standing figure, it frequently so destroys good posture 
and carriage that the moving figure appears less tall. The 
moderately high heel inconspicuously adds an inch or an 
inch and a half of height to the figure, giving more ap- 
parent height than the extremely high heel, which ob- 
viously indicates that it is attempting to add height. 

The heavy woman finds that the extremely high, slender 
heel gives insufficient support and, by seeming too fragile, 
emphasizes the bulk of her figure. A heel of moderate 
height, broad enough at the base to give a firm foundation, 
is more graceful on the average figure. As it is less likely 
to turn and become run-down, its wearer is more likely to 
appear always well groomed. 

Even the smallest, daintiest foot appears large and 
rather mannish when an extremely low, flat heel and a 
heavy welt sole are worn. An oxford, with heavy stitch- 
ing, large perforations, saddles, tips, and other details 
breaking the length of the shoe and making it appear 
wider, is extremely difficult to wear. It not only makes 
the foot appear extremely large, but gives a heavy, mascu- 
line appearance to the foot and, if a woman is at all large, 
to her carriage and entire body. Except for golf or other 
active sports requiring this type of shoe, a walking shoe 



212 Footwear, Foundation for the Figure 





Light footwear gives an 
inadequate foundation 
to a dark costume; it les- 
sens the height of the 
figure. 



A close, narrow skirt 
makes the feet and 
ankles seem large; a full 
skirt makes them seem 
smaller. 






Pronounced contrast be- 
tween dress, and hosiery 
and shoes makes the 
foot seem larger, the 
figure shorter. 



An opera pump gives 
length to foot, leg, 
and the entire figure; 
straps break the 
length. 





Footwear, Foundation for the Figure 213 

cut on simple lines, with a solid leather cuban heel and a 
turned sole, which gives a trimmer, lighter, appearance to 
the shoe, is much more becoming than the shoe with a 
welt sole and flat heel. A one-strap model with a narrow 
but not too-fine and dainty strap is suitable for walking 
shoes. 

Other Considerations 

Sport hose should not be conspicuous. Simple rib-knit 
sport hose of lightweight wool or lisle are much more 
easily worn than those of heavier texture or more elaborate 
construction. Solid colors are more likely to be becoming 
than those having a pattern emphasized by color contrast. 
The standard knitted silk hose are likewise more becom- 
ing to the woman with heavy legs and ankles than those 
of large or coarse mesh. The new dull textures are more 
slenderizing than shiny finishes. 

Hemline affects grace of feet and figure. The narrow, 
close-fitting skirt with a straight hemline makes the feet, 
ankles, and legs seem larger than they actually are, for 
their size becomes more apparent in contrast with the 
close, narrow lines of the skirt. A skirt with fullness at 
the bottom makes the legs and feet seem smaller in con- 
trast with the wide lines above them. An uneven hem- 
line, which eliminates the horizontal straight hem, gives 
less width to the legs, ankles, and feet. A skirt with 
slender lines, but with fullness introduced in godets or 
other subtle handlings, which retain the slender lines of 
the skirt and give fullness above legs and feet, is usually 
most becoming to both feet and figure. 



CHAPTER XXI 
J-kc J-allj <~>leudet l/l/c 



awian, 



' — Iallness and slenderness are universally prized in this 
J- age among women who aspire to dress well. Women 
of all types of figure strive to create the illusion of being 
tall and slim. Yet even the fortunate woman who is tall 
and slender may have need of illusions created by artful 
costume design. She may wish to take fullest advantage 
of her own distinctive lines, or she may feel that she is too 
thin and angular for her height, and wish to modify her 
not entirely pleasing figure. 

Tall and Slim and Proud of It 

The tall, slim woman with good carriage and pleasing 
proportions frequently appears most distinguished if she 
selects a costume that emphasizes her height and slimness. 
Particularly if she is young, the tall woman may make an 
asset of this striking characteristic. 

The high-waisted dress, especially when combined with 
a full skirt, is extremely youthful, sometimes even child- 
ishly naive in appearance. It frequently gives an ex- 
tremely tall woman a little-girl aspect inconsistent with 
her figure. But even when the higher waistline is not 
actively unbecoming, it does not allow the tall, thin 

214 



The Tall, Slender Woman 215 

woman to capitalize her height and slenderness as does 
the long bodice giving a low waistline above which the 
upper part of the figure rises tall and slim. The long- 
waisted robe de style, with its full, long skirt, making the 
upper part of the figure seem smaller by comparison and 
adding to the apparent total length of the figure, empha- 
sizes slim height while giving a much more sophisticated 
appearance than the short-waisted dress. 

The short, pleated skirt, with its full, rippling move- 
ment, gives a youthful, jaunty appearance to the wearer, 
one that is attractive for many purposes, but which de- 
tracts from the distinctive height and slenderness of the 
tall woman. An intricately cut skirt with clinging lines 
and fullness ingeniously placed will give a knowing em- 
phasis to length of line. Slender, tightly swathed hips, 
with fullness restrained to a low point in the skirt, increase 
the apparent height and slenderness of the figure and give 
an interesting silhouette. Bustles and panniers have much 
the opposite effect; they broaden the figure and reduce its 
apparent height. 

The tall, thin woman who wishes to accentuate her 
unusual height and slenderness finds the dress made with 
a high, close-fitting collar; narrow, close-fitting sleeves; 
and close, sleek, straight lines throughout extremely smart 
and effective. The high collar that buttons at the side 
made sometimes be more becoming than the one that 
fastens at the front, as the side closing gives more width 
to the face and frequently permits softer, crushed lines or 
folds of fabric to be used to frame the face. A low, round 
neckline, wide sleeves creating round lines over the arm 



2l6 



The Tall, Slender Woman 



and hand, and a full blouse and skirt make the figure ap- 
pear shorter. 

The close-fitting suit with long, sleekly tailored lines, 
worn with a close-fitting turban and a tailored ascot tie, 
makes the wearer appear exceedingly tall and slim, well 




Deep, round neckline shortens the figure that is too tall and 
thin; deep V cut at back and long train give height to woman who 
is tall and slim and proud of it. 

groomed, and smart. This costume is much more strik- 
ing and, accordingly, much more difficult to wear than 
the suit cut on loose, easy-fitting lines, worn with a blouse 
of soft, feminine character and a hat with wider lines in- 
tended to give width and break height. The woman who 
is too tall and thin, whose contours are angular, should 
not attempt to adopt the severely plain, straight, tailored 
lines. The tall woman wjio is essentially feminine in 



The Tall, Slender Woman 217 

appearance wearr, these severe mannish styles to much 
better advantage than she who has a masculine appear- 
ance, which is accentuated by costumes of this character. 
In no other costume does the tall, thin woman appear 
so strikingly, regally tall as in the evening dress with a 
deep, narrow V decollete, ending in a long, narrow train, 
which carries the eye of the observer in an uninterrupted 
sweep down the length of the back. This type of cos- 
tume, being extreme in type, makes the wearer conspicu- 
ous and, therefore, is suited only to the tall, thin woman of 
graceful and sophisticated bearing. A round neckline 
and a short, full skirt give more round, youthful lines and 
a more naive appearance to the wearer, at the same time 
definitely shortening her figure. 

Too Tall and Thin 

The extremely tall, thin woman, the woman who is so 
tall and thin that it is desirable for her to make her figure 
appear less attenuated, must pay particular attention to 
space divisions and horizontal and perpendicular lines 
used in her costume. 

Uninterrupted lines from shoulder to hem, particu- 
larly those without a break at the waistline, are unbecom- 
ing to the woman of unusual height and thinness. Be- 
cause we are accustomed to a belt or horizontal seaming 
at the waistline, the figure without one seems unduly tall 
and the too-tall, thin figure extremely attenuated. The 
princess line, with its long, slim, fitted, beltless silhouette, 
outlines the too-thin figure, emphasizing not only its 
length but its actual contours, and exaggerating the effect 



2l8 



The Tall, Slender Woman 




Contrasting sash or girdle breaks the height of the tall, thin 
figure. 

of the thin, angular figure. Horizontal seamings, belts, 
or swathed girdles break the height of the figure and give 
lines that induce width. 

Coats that are full length, coming to or below the bot- 
tom of the dress, make the figure seem of much greater 
height than a shorter coat. A three-quarter or seven- 
eighth length coat breaks the length of the skirt, shortens 
the figure, and reduces the apparent length of the legs 
from thigh to knee — the proportion that frequently seems 
awkwardly long in the extremely tall, thin woman. A 
flaring, swagger cut, a short length with a wide, full hem, 
shortens the figure more than does a close-fitting, straight 
line. If there is a decided contrast between coat and dress, 
the figure seems shorter than when coat and dress are 
similar and the length of line is more decidedly broken. 



The Tall, Slender Woman 



219 



A short or hip-length 
jacket makes the figure 
seem taller; a wrist or 
fingertip length jacket, 
especially if the skirt 
and jacket contrast in 
color, lessens the height 
of the figure. 





F-necklines, seams from 
shoulder to hem in- 
crease the height and 
thinness; high neck- 
lines, soft, gathered, 
bloused fullness, wide 
sleeves gathered at the 
wrist lessen thinness 
and angularity. A con- 
trasting girdle further 
decreases height. 



220 The Tall, Slender Woman 

A short jacket, one ending above the hip joint, gives 
awkward and unpleasing proportions to the woman who 
is extremely tall and thin. The legs are made to seem 
longer, and the torso too short for them. A jacket care- 
fully selected so that its length breaks the length of the 
thigh creates the best proportion between the upper and 
lower parts of the body. The height of the entire figure 
is more effectively broken by the horizontal line of the 
jacket when the division comes near the center of the 
figure. 

The extremely long jacket, that with long, close-fitting 
lines coming to the knee or near the bottom of the skirt, 
likewise increases the height of the figure and the length 
of the thighs and supplies much less pleasing proportions 
than does the suit with a jacket ending halfway between 
the hip and knee joints. A slight alteration that modifies 
the length of the jacket, perhaps changing it only an inch 
or two, may do much to improve the grace of the too-tall, 
thin figure. 

Long skirts make the figure seem taller, greatly exag- 
gerating the height of the already tall figure. The 
woman who wishes to minimize her height, therefore, 
should seek horizontal contrasts to lessen the apparent 
length of her long skirt. A contrasting border at the 
bottom, a long tunic with a skirt of contrasting color, are 
among the most becoming fashions for the extremely tall 
and slender woman. Skirt and blouse or coat of different 
colors make the height seem less. Contrasts supplied by 
gloves, by hosiery contrasting either in color or in value, 
by shoes with contrasts breaking their length, lessen the 



The Tall, Slender Woman 221 

height of the entire figure. Hats with either contrasting 
crown and brim or contrasting band, or, more important 
still, a hat contrasting with the coat or dress, are extremely 
effective on the tall, slender figure. Since they are diffi- 
cult for women of other figure types, the tall, slender 
woman does well to take advantage of her opportunity to 
wear styles that other women must forego. 

The tall, slender woman can likewise wear wide and 
round capes, which would be disastrous on a less willowy 
figure. Drop shoulder lines are likewise becoming; but 
she should avoid raglan sleeves, which make her arms ap- 
pear longer. Wide sleeves, horizontal lines in sleeves and 
bracelets, and many bracelets are effective in lessening 
the apparent length of the arm, thereby breaking the im- 
pression of length as applied to the entire figure. 



CHAPTER XXII 
J-ltc J-ally tzr-reavu l/Vc 




entail 



*y clever costuming, the tall woman who has become 
heavy, or who is naturally of large frame, may ap- 
pear dignified and regal. If she fails to give this impres- 
sion she is almost certain to look massive or unpleasantly 
imposing. Moreover, she must achieve her effects with- 
out emphasizing either her height or her breadth. She is 
barred from the use of methods minimizing height be- 
cause they naturally accent width, and she cannot appear 
more slender by increasing her apparent height. There- 
fore, she must strive for a balance of horizontal and vertical 
line directions. Where one is employed the other must 
be used to counteract it. She cannot beg the question by 
avoiding the use of lines within the silhouette, for it is 
necessary for her to break up large surfaces by lines that 
cut their expanse. 

Choice of Fabrics 

Texture. A correct choice of fabrics is one of the great- 
est aids in giving the large woman a pleasing appearance. 
The texture of fabrics used may minimize or emphasize 
the bulk of the massive figure. All the types of fabrics 
listed in Chapter XIV as increasing apparent size or re- 
vealing silhouette are difficult for her. 

222 



The Tall, Heavy Woman 223 

Smooth, shiny surfaces highlight both curves and 
angles. They make the size of the tall woman of large 
frame unpleasantly apparent, whether she is thin or carries 
excess weight. She should choose dull fabrics, those with 
slightly rough, broken surfaces that absorb the light or 
that break it up into a soft, subdued reflection, with shad- 
ows in the depths of the folds. 

Any bulky, cumbersome fabric tends to make the large 
woman appear massive. Rough tweeds and wool cloths 
are possible at all only because their weight is consistent 
with her size; she appears to have strength enough to 
carry them. Lightweight tweeds or firmly woven com- 
pact woolens, such as covert cloth, are becoming. 

Thick, erect pile fabrics not only add appreciable bulk, 
much more apparent bulk than the actual dimensions 
added, but also create heavy, rounded lines, no matter how 
straight the lines of the design. A soft pile on a light- 
weight pliable background or, better yet, a soft close nap 
giving a velvety appearance may be substituted. 

Long-haired fur, especially if used for an entire coat, 
greatly increases the apparent size of the tall, heavy 
woman. The very large woman usually finds a cloth coat 
more becoming than a fur coat; but if she selects a fur 
coat it should be one with flat, soft fur, with a soft pliable 
pelt; for a stiff fur, even though flat, will add bulk in the 
same way that a stiff fabric increases the size of the sil- 
houette. 

Transparent fabrics of fragile character are not appro- 
priate to the costume of the tall, heavy woman, for they 
not only reveal the figure in its too-full proportions, but 



224 The Tall, Heavy Woman 

also make her appear more massive by contrast. When 
sheer fabrics are worn, it is important that they be used in 
a manner counteracting their sheerness. Double thick- 
ness of chiffon, or more closely woven fabrics that are not 
actually transparent, as crepe Roma or very heavy, closely 
woven georgettes or the sheer woolens, are becoming to 
the tall, heavy woman. 

Clinging fabrics reveal contours and in this way call at- 
tention to unusual size. An elastic fabric, such as jersey, 
is particularly unbecoming. Two dresses made in the 
same style, one of jersey, the other of fine wool crepe, af- 
ford an excellent demonstration of the difference in be- 
comingness to the large woman. 

Designs correct for large women will assume incorrect 
lines when executed in stiff fabrics. The stiff material 
emphasizes angular bony structure or, if the wearer is 
overweight, high lights curves and creates additional ones. 
It adds apparent bulk by flaring away from the figure. 

Color. Not only the texture but also the color and the 
pattern in the fabrics she chooses for her costumes in- 
fluence the apparent bulk of the tall, heavy woman. 
Chapter XIV contains the principles of emphasizing or 
minimizing the figure by means of color. 

The large woman must not forget that vivid, brilliant 
colors advance to meet the eye, making her appear larger 
and, at the same time, unduly conspicuous. Less intense 
or soft, grayed colors have the opposite effect. 

Red, orange, and yellow — the warm colors — are more 
prominent than blues and greens, the essentially cool 
colors. The large woman should avoid large areas of 



The Tall, Heavy Woman 225 

warm color. If warm colors are suited to her own color- 
ing, they should be chosen in softened or grayed inten- 
sities. Vivid color may be used as accents. Grayed, cool 
colors make her appear smaller and, at the same time, 
make her bulk as inconspicuous as possible. 

The large woman dressed in white or in very light colors 
appears much larger than in dark colors. This effect is 
increased if the tints are warm, as yellows and pinks, and 
is still further increased if the coloring is bright and vivid. 
For occasions when other women may be wearing light 
colors, the tall, heavy woman will usually appear less con- 
spicuous in grayed, light colors than in a dark costume. 

Size and character of design in fabric. Small, dainty de- 
signs, those of fine, delicate character, emphasize the size 
of the large woman by their contrast with her large pro- 
portions. Designs that are less minute in scale, those of 
moderate size and more dignified character, are more 
consistent with the size of the tall, heavy woman. 

Extremely large, sprawling designs, patterns so large 
that one or two seem to be sufficient to cover the entire 
figure, emphasize the unusual size of the area they cover. 
By its very magnitude, scaled though it is to the size of 
the wearer, the large design proclaims the expanse beneath 
it by leading the eye of the observer out over the massive 
bulk it covers. Allover designs of indefinite outlines are 
much more suitable. 

Curved designs, especially those with large or unbroken 
curves, emphasize the curves in the wearer's figure, mak- 
ing her seem more rotund than she actually is. Designs 
that are neither entirely curved nor entirely geometric or 



226 



The Tall, Heavy Woman 




Frilly, fine detail appears too dainty for the tall, heavy woman 
and makes her seem masculine by contrast; soft lines, giving sim- 
plicity without severity, are most becoming. 

angular, that neither repeat nor contradict sharply the 
curves in the tall, heavy figure, are more becoming than 
large dots or other pronouncedly curved designs. 

Severely angular designs, those with bold, striking, 
modern feeling, are too pronounced for the woman of 
unusual size, since they make her conspicuous and thus 
emphasize her size. Broken or irregular geometric de- 
signs are much more becoming than regular plaids or 
checks or other severely geometric designs. Indefinite 



The Tall, Heavy Woman 



227 




Severely tailored suits make the tall, heavy woman appear man- 
nish; softer, dressmaker suits are more becoming. 



plaids, irregular placements of checks, or combined curved 
and straight lines are more appropriate to the costume of 
the tall, heavy woman. 

The majority of designs have a feeling of movement 
that carries the eye of the observer in one direction or an- 
other and increases the apparent width or height of the 
wearer. The tall, heavy woman frequently appears to 
best advantage in designs having at least a slightly per- 
pendicular feeling. These designs need not give pro- 



228 



The Tall, Heavy Woman 



nounced emphasis to height, but they avoid increase in 
apparent width and add to the dignity of the wearer. 

Stripes used entirely in one direction, either up and 
down or across the figure, are much more likely to em- 
phasize bulk than are stripes ingeniously cut and com- 
bined so that they break the large surface they cover. 
Stripes must be carefully analyzed as to the direction in 
which they lead the eye. Those used to form oblique 
lines, especially V- or pointed lines, are likely to be becom- 




Lines that lessen height but increase the actual size of the sil- 
houette are unbecoming; a combination of vertical and diagonal 
lines minimizes the bulk of the tall, heavy woman. 



The Tall, Heavy Woman 229 

ing, if the oblique lines thus formed are not so long as to 
give too much emphasis to height. Wisely used, stripes 
may break up the surface in a manner that seems to lessen 
both the height and the width of the wearer. 

The large surfaces of the tall, heavy woman's figure are 
sometimes effectively broken if patterned and solid-col- 
ored materials are used in combination. The design of 
the costume must, however, be carefully considered so that 
the figure is not shortened by abrupt divisions. If one 
type of fabric is used in the skirt and another in the blouse, 
an accent of that used in the skirt should be used near the 
face, so that the eye of the observer will be carried the 
entire length of the wearer's figure. An irregular line 
at the joining of skirt and blouse further adds to the be- 
comingness of contrasting plain and figured fabrics. Un- 
usual and ingenious cutting and combining of material, so 
essential to the smart costume today, add much to the be- 
comingness and effectiveness of fabric combinations upon 
the tall, heavy woman. 

The Large Woman's Hat 

The hat should form a becoming frame for the face and 
preserve or create pleasing proportions between face and 
figure. Many types of hats fail to do these two things for 
the tall, heavy woman. Chapter IV gives specific prin- 
ciples for guidance in choosing hats. 

Hats particularly unsuited to the tall, heavy woman are 
the close-fitting, brimless hat, which makes the features 
seem coarse and heavy, the head small, and the figure 
taller; the tailored, mannish hat, which gives a masculine 



230 The Tall, Heavy Woman 

appearance; the jaunty beret, which is too small and lack- 
ing in dignity; the tiny feminine hat worn with a veil 
over the upper part of the face, the sophisticated coyness 
of which is at variance with the dignity needed to make 
the tall, heavy woman appear to good advantage; the 
large hat with brim hiding the neck, or the hat with 
trimming hanging over the neck and shoulder, which 
shorten the figure and give it a stolid, massive quality; and 
any hat with elaborate bows, feathers, flowers, or other 
trimming that is dainty and frilly and very feminine. 

The tall, heavy woman may wear a hat that is brimless 
in front if it has width at the sides. Her tailored hat 
should have a shaped brim, and perhaps several narrow 
bands with opportunity for color interest and less severe 
manipulation. A simple cloche may be worn when her 
more girlish companions wear berets. A well-selected 
small hat may be smart and sophisticated. A wide brim 
chosen with care may be particularly harmonious with her 
figure. All trimming should be simple and rather flat in 
character. 

Footwear 

The selection of footwear is especially important to the 
tall, heavy woman, since it must be not only becoming 
but comfortable to feet that must bear more than the 
average weight. Therein lies the key to her shoe selec- 
tion. The footwear must appear comfortable as well as 
be comfortable, for if it seems inadequate to support the 
figure it is unpleasing to the observer. The tall, heavy 
woman usually has a large foot. Her feet and legs, there- 






The Tall, Heavy Woman 231 

fore, should be inconspicuously neat and well groomed. 
Footwear of a lighter color than that of the costume is 
likewise an inappropriate support for the tall, heavy figure. 
If footwear does not match the costume it should be darker 
rather than lighter. 

Shoes with fine, dainty straps; delicate detail; and ex- 
tremely high, slender heels give the tall, heavy woman an 
awkward carriage because they not only appear to be but 
are inadequate to support her figure. On the other hand, 
the extremely stout, substantial shoe makes her foot ap- 
pear large and clumsy, giving a heavy masculine appear- 
ance to her foot and to her carriage and entire body. 
Except for golf or other active sports, a walking shoe cut 
on simple lines with a heel of moderate height, one not 
too narrow at the bottom and with a lightweight turned 
sole, is much more becoming to the tall, heavy woman 
than is the shoe with a welt sole and flat heel. Close, 
narrow skirts and straight hemlines make feet and ankles 
seem larger, while soft fullness at the bottom of the skirt 
makes the feet and legs seem smaller in contrast with the 
wider lines above them. While the hemline should be 
kept inconspicuous, one that is somewhat irregular is 
more slenderizing than one with a rigid, straight line. 



CHAPTER XXIII 
J~kc <~>kattj <~>LeuJLet 1/1/ c 



awtau 



7 he short woman of thin or slender figure has many 
advantages not shared by the woman of larger figure, 
but she likewise has limitations and restrictions incident 
to her small stature. Her problem is that of emphasizing 
her petite form in a manner that will be charming, and of 
avoiding the costume in which she appears small and in- 
significant. 

Emphasising Petite Charm 

Striking accent may be needed. Although the costume 
should not usually be more striking than the physical per- 
sonality, a dashing design prevents the small woman's 
appearing mouselike and inconspicuous. A very con- 
servative costume, one without strong accent or distinctive 
styling, will make the small figure appear quiet and sub- 
dued. As there is comparatively little surface in the cos- 
tume of the small woman, bright colors and striking detail 
are often more pleasing than upon the larger figure. The 
small woman of vigorous, alert bearing, with definite col- 
oring and vivacious personality, may wear much more 
striking apparel than the small woman of uncertain, unas- 
suming demeanor. 

Demurely quaint style. The small woman wears pic- 

232 



The Short, Slender Woman 233 

turesquely demure styles extremely well. The period 
dress made with close, slim-fitting bodice and full skirt is 
often extremely becoming. The demure dress, simply 
and artistically conceived, is much more becoming than 
the period dress of more massive proportions, especially 
that with wide skirt and wide, dropped shoulder line, 
which build out the figure so that it appears either too 
wide or so small as to be submerged under the bulk of 
clothes. 

Modified princess. The short, thin woman who desires 
to increase her apparent height and to avoid emphasis on 
width finds both perpendicular and oblique lines helpful. 
They must, however, be correctly placed so that they give 
pleasing space divisions without overemphasizing the 
thinness of the figure. 

When the little woman selects costumes with perpen- 
dicular lines to make her appear taller, unfortunately she 
increases her apparent thinness. If she chooses dresses 
with horizontal lines, they reduce her apparent height, 
making her abnormally short and ill-proportioned. An 
unbroken surface, like that of the modified princess dress, 
without pronounced lines in either direction and without 
prominent space divisions, therefore, is suitable for the 
short, thin woman, because it decreases none of her pro- 
portions. 

Combined lines counteract each other. The use of both 
horizontal and perpendicular lines may be another solu- 
tion of the short, thin woman's problems. When lines 
going in both directions are employed, one giving height, 
the other tending to increase apparent width, the wearer 



234 



The Short, Slender Woman 




In a very conservative 
dress the small woman 
seems subdued and in- 
significant; fine, dainty 
detail with interest cen- 
tered high near the face 
is becoming. 



A short skirt is girlish 
and becoming; added 
length of skirt, instead 
of adding height, makes 
the dress look too large 
for the small wearer. 




The Short, Slender Woman 



235 



Low necklines and gilet 
effects make the small 
figure seem shorter than 
it does in the high, 
slightly draped neckline 
which is especially be- 
coming to the petite fig- 
ure. 





Stressing perpendicular 
lines for height makes 
the short, slim woman 
seem too thin; to com- 
bine lines in both direc- 
tions is to avoid the un- 
fortunate influence of 
either, and to make the 
slight figure more im- 
pressive than in un^ 
broken surface. 



236 The Short, Slender Woman 

may appear slightly larger and more impressive than when 
an unbroken surface covers her small figure. Other space 
divisions that break the surface in both directions may 
make the entire figure appear smaller. Too many space 
divisions and too-intricate or heavy designs should be 
avoided lest they become massive, overpower the slight 
figure, and hide its petite beauty. 

Long, flowing lines. The perpendicular effect created 
by long, unbroken folds, or by drapes hanging in long, 
unbroken lengths, markedly increases the apparent height 
of the short, thin woman and conceals undue thinness, as 
well as softening contours in a flattering manner. Drapes 
with short, broken lines, or with folds forming lines that 
produce a horizontal effect, are much less suitable for the 
short, thin woman. 

Not too long a s\irt. The short, slender woman should 
avoid skirts that are slightly longer than the mode, which 
give her dress the appearance of being too large for its 
wearer. Some short women like to wear longer dresses in 
the belief that they give an impression of greater height, 
but by so doing they lose their appearance of dainty petite- 
ness. Short skirts, as short as is consistent with the mode, 
make the small woman appear girlish and youthful, giv- 
ing pleasing emphasis to her petite stature. 

Space Divisions 

Normal waistline. As the short woman is frequently 
inclined to have a high natural waistline, great care must 
be used in the placement of the belt. Dresses designed 



The Short, Slender Woman 237 

with a high waistline may be quaintly pleasing on a few 
short, slender women (particularly those with narrow 
shoulders), but, as a rule, they appear awkward and ill- 
proportioned. A normal or slightly lower than normal 
waistline usually gives much better proportions. 

Equal lengths of skirt and blouse should be avoided. 
Great care should be taken that the skirt and blouse do 
not divide the figure exactly in the middle. This is par- 
ticularly likely to occur when the skirt is short and the 
waistline is between the hips and natural waistline. Ad- 
justment of skirt length must frequently be accompanied 
by a change in the waistline if the proportions of the cos- 
tume design are to be retained and the grace of the wear- 
er's figure preserved. The hemline should be placed to 
avoid showing equal lengths of leg, skirt, and blouse. As 
the short woman is likely to be especially short in certain 
measurements — from hip to knee, for instance, or hip to 
ankles, or sometimes from hip to shoulders — spacings be- 
come especially important. 

Short jacket ending above hips difficult. Like the high 
waistline or belt placed high, the jacket that is short, end- 
ing above the hips, is extremely difficult to wear. It 
greatly lessens the wearer's apparent height, in some in- 
stances making her appear like an awkward, growing 
child whose legs have become too long for the upper body. 
Fingertip jackets designed for taller figures, with skirt 
and sleeves shortened for the short, thin woman, should 
likewise have the jacket length reduced from its original 
measure. If a belt is worn with the jacket or overblouse, 



238 The Short, Slender Woman 

the proportions become changed and the ill-advised effect 
of two equal space divisions is less likely to result. As the 
belt creates another horizontal spacing, double care must 
be used in determining these space divisions. 

Contrasting shjrt and blouse should be avoided. The 
short woman will greatly lessen her apparent height and 
make her figure appear unduly short and insignificant if 
she wears either a jacket or a blouse that contrasts with 
her skirt. The short woman who wishes to employ con- 
trast in a jacket ensemble may do so by choosing a jacket 
and skirt of matching color for wear with a blouse of a 
contrasting color. The jacket will reveal a long, narrow 
panel, with either V- or narrow, perpendicular lines of 
contrasting color. If the jacket hangs too- widely open, 
the horizontal line at the end of the contrasting blouse 
may be too apparent and shorten the figure or even give 
it a semblance of heaviness. Obviously, the costume 
planned with a contrasting blouse should never be worn 
without the jacket by the short, thin woman; she should 
always be aware that her costume has this limitation. 

Wide belt of contrasting color difficult. The wide belt 
is much less becoming to the short, thin woman than one 
of very narrow proportions. If the belt is of contrasting 
color, it is especially difficult to wear in wider widths. A 
narrow belt of self-fabric gives least horizontal break, 
while it serves to define a waistline that emphasizes the 
slenderness of the short, thin woman. 

Long coat. Three-quarter or seven-eighth coats, which 
tend to break the long line of the figure, are to be dis- 
carded by the small woman in favor of the full-length coat. 



The Short, Slender Woman 239 

Keeping in Scale 

Soft, delicate textures. Delicate, dainty fabrics of 
supple, soft quality enable the small woman to emphasize 
her petiteness in an attractive feminine manner. Heavy, 
bulky fabrics, out of scale with her size, hide her dainty 
proportions and make her appear either awkward or sub- 
merged by the bulk of her costume. 

Small, dainty design. The scale of the design or figure 
on the material should likewise be in scale with that of 
the wearer. Small designs of delicate feeling, which 
would be totally out of place on the woman of extremely 
large proportions, are consistent with the size of the small 
woman and aid in emphasizing the daintiness of her fig- 
ure. A rich brocade of elaborate, elegant character is too 
formal, too impressive, for the short, thin woman. 

Coiffure. If the head is made to seem larger than its 
actual proportions, the body will seem shorter and less 
graceful. While a slightly larger than normal head may 
give a youthful appearance to a young woman, since chil- 
dren's heads are larger in proportion than adults', the 
head that is perceptibly larger appears awkward, shortens 
the figure, and makes it top heavy. It is possible to have a 
close, yet not sleek, coiffure that will soften the features 
without increasing the apparent size of the head. 

Hats. A heavy hat is more actively unbecoming than a 
large hairdress, for it is not so easily recognized as the 
cause of the large proportions of the head. A turban fol- 
lowing the natural proportions of the head and giving a 
close, trim appearance, which increases the apparent 
height of the figure, is frequently becoming to the short, 
thin woman. The turban draped in soft folds that carry 



240 The Short, Slender Woman 

the observer's eye up to the top of the head is usually 
becoming to both the face and the figure. 

The wide brim, particularly one that is wider than the 
shoulders, appears too heavy for the short, thin figure to 
carry. It hides the neck and shoulders, especially if its 
lines are drooping, thereby making the figure seem short 
and top heavy. A moderately wide brim is more becom- 
ing and a brim smaller in the front and back than at the 
sides is more easily worn. The brim that turns up at one 
side or at the front carries the eye of the observer beyond 
the actual height of the figure and thus makes the small 
woman seem taller. 

Accessories. Accessories out of scale with the petite 
figure likewise destroy its apparent grace. Large, heavy 
beads, many strands of beads, numerous bracelets, espe- 
cially those of heavy character, appear too heavy for the 
small woman to carry. They, therefore, make her appear 
awkwardly small. A single strand of smaller beads, a 
chain of lighter weight, a lightweight bracelet — in gen- 
eral, the use of fewer accessories and those few in scale 
with the figure of the wearer — contribute more to the 
costume of the short, thin woman. 

The large handbag of a color contrasting with the cos- 
tume of the wearer is unsuitable for the small woman. It 
not only makes her seem small and insignificant in com- 
parison with its conspicuous bulk, but it creates a con- 
trasting line or spot in the center of the figure that breaks 
its apparent height as much as would a contrasting belt. 
A handbag of the same color as the costume, of moderate 
size and inconspicuous design, is most easily correlated 
with the smaller woman's costume. 



The Short, Slender Woman 241 

Large, heavy bows and many details unsuitable. The 
woman of petite figure should avoid costumes with large 
bows and other heavy details. Simplicity, absence of 
many details, keeping those details that are used in scale 
with the small figure on which they are to be worn — 
these are essentials of the costume that becomes the smaller 
woman. 

Large fur scarf dwarfs figure. The fur scarf made 
from a large pelt makes the upper part of the figure ap- 
pear too heavy and, at the same time, hides the neck and 
shoulders. The scarf made of several smaller skins is 
more in scale with the small figure, gives longer lines that 
tend to increase apparent height, and softens the neck- 
and-shoulder line without hiding the natural proportions. 
As the shorter-haired, smaller skins sometimes make the 
wearer appear matronly, the small woman frequently ap- 
pears better without a fur scarf. 

Footwear. Since the woman of small stature usually 
has small feet and slim legs, she has less difficulty in 
selecting becoming footwear than do most other types. 
Extremely low, flat heels and simple, broad-toed shoes 
may give her some of the awkward characteristics of the 
growing girl. An extremely high heel will make her 
taller, but sometimes the extreme height of the heel is too 
obvious and makes the figure appear stilted. Shoes of the 
same color or of the same value as the costume add height 
and slenderness. Large buckles and intricate details are 
ill-placed on the shoes of the small woman. They not 
only appear too heavy for her to carry gracefully, but they 
attract undue attention to the feet. Conspicuous heavy 
sport hose likewise are unsuitable. 



CHAPTER XXIV 



awtan, 



' — 1 he short woman who is overweight, or who has 
^/- wide shoulders or hips, unquestionably has difficulty 
in obtaining a fashionable silhouette. She, therefore, pre- 
sents an interesting problem in the study of line direction 
and optical illusion. Women of every type may learn 
about dress from her, for she presents striking examples 
of the effect of slenderizing and broadening lines. She 
may likewise learn about dress from other women. She 
must avoid those means by which the tall, angular woman 
strives to appear less attenuated and those by which the 
short, thin woman strives to appear taller. She must 
make more effort than the short, thin woman to appear 
tall, for she seems much shorter than a thin woman of the 
same height. Some of the devices employed by the tall, 
heavy woman she cannot employ, either because they do 
not give sufficient emphasis to height or because they re- 
quire height to carry them well. 

She will do well to remember that her figure is not an 
asset, and that the face and not the figure should always 
be the center of interest. Since nature has so frequently 
compensated overweight with an enviable complexion, 
the short, heavy woman more often than not possesses a 
definite asset in her face. Therefore, she should make 

242 



The Short, Heavy Woman 243 

f~ — . 

every effort to enhance her face and to keep her figure 
inconspicuous. She should wear becoming, actively flat- 
tering colors, always remembering, however, that the body 
of the costume itself should not be of a bright conspicuous 
color, which calls attention to short stature and too-gen- 
erous girth. 

To Keep Figure Inconspicuous 

When the short, heavy woman has acquired lists of 
fabrics she may and may not wear, she is far on the road 
toward being well dressed. Her choice of textures, as 
well as of colors and designs, is more limited than for any 
other type of figure. She must avoid all fabrics that are 
striking in any way. Yet she need not think of these re- 
strictions as negative. They are her means of centering 
interest away from unpleasing proportions. 

Fabrics that add actual bulk and those that reveal con- 
tours are equally unbecoming. Tweeds; any rough-sur- 
faced fabric; any erect-pile fabric; any material that is 
shiny, stiff, or clinging; long-haired fur, even in trim- 
ming; transparent material — these are taboo. A definite 
design, particularly if it is large or in contrasting colors, 
will spoil the effect of the most carefully chosen texture. 

Once she has her peculiar requirements in mind, the 
short, heavy woman will find an adequate choice of pleas- 
ing fabrics. Lightweight woolens, or, better yet, fine 
worsteds, for suits and dresses; a close-napped wool fabric 
with a soft, suede finish for her coat; soft, supple silks or 
transparent velvet of rich deep luster, but of a texture that 
absorbs light — these are her stand-bys. Jersey may be 



244 



The Short, Heavy Woman 





Curving lines and dainty detail add to rotundity of figure; 
pointed lines conceal it. 

Details of costume should never add to width of silhouette. 



used over a slip that prevents clinging. Semi-sheer ma- 
terials will look and be cool, without actually revealing 
contours or breaks in line. Indistinct designs are often 
more pleasing than a perfectly plain surface. 

A soft, close fur, fairly flat, with little luster, one that 
can be manipulated much like a fabric, may be used. 
Furs should be worked so that their markings create long, 
slenderizing lines. Horizontal placement of fur is poor, 
whether in collar, cuff, or band at bottom of coat. 

Dainty detail in trimmings and accessories is too fine in 
scale for the short, heavy woman. Bulky, heavy details 
weigh her down and seem to shorten her figure. She 
needs simplicity of design and few accessories, those few 
being of moderate size in scale with the wearer. 

The short, heavy woman must be careful to avoid add- 



The Short, Heavy Woman 245 

ing actual bulk at the sides of her figure. Wide sleeves, 
large bows placed out over the shoulders or hips, heavy 
drapes, full, loose lines, and bulky fabrics all materially 
increase the size of the silhouette and make the figure 
seem shorter and heavier. Drapes and folds should be 
placed within the silhouette, not added to it. 

Many lines and intricate details in the skirt of a costume 
give the wearer a squat, heavy figure. Even when ar- 
ranged in perpendicular lines for slenderness, skirt detail 
should not be profuse. A few simple lines extending the 
length of the figure are invariably better. 

One of the surest ways of keeping the short, heavy fig- 
ure inconspicuous is never to permit color contrasts or 
other breaks to form horizontal lines. Coats should al- 
ways be worn full length. Hip-length jackets should be 
worn with matching skirts. Hat and shoes should con- 
tinue rather than contrast with the color of dress or coat. 

To Improve the Figure 

The short, heavy woman finds that most becoming 
garments fit somewhat loosely. The one-piece, beltless 
dress with seamings that suggest the princess silhouette, 
but actually without its closely fitted lines, is frequently 
very flattering. Carefully fitted shoulder lines are espe- 
cially important, as a close, trim line adds no undesirable 
width. 

Interest centered high on the figure adds to its apparent 
height. When the interest is lower or is scattered, atten- 
tion is directed to broad proportions instead of being led 



246 



The Short, Heavy Woman 





Interest centered low or scattered shortens figure; interest cen- 
tered high gives height and emphasizes face. 

Horizontal seaming makes figure seem short and stocky; V- 
seaming gives effect of slenderness. 

to follow and accent height. The neckline or the hat 
should be designed to draw the eye of the observer up- 
ward. The face thus gains its opportunity to hold the 
interest. 

The optical illusions by which the short, heavy woman 
improves her appearance are based on her desire to look 
taller and more slender. Curved lines and round details 
are to be avoided by the woman who possesses too full 
natural curves. The use of straight or diagonal lines re- 
moves emphasis from the curves in the figure, and, if they 
are wisely placed, increases apparent height. Wide and 
square lines across the neck and shoulders increase the 
width of the face, neck, and figure as a whole. They are 
especially unbecoming if the lower part of the face is 
broad and full, as they emphasize sagging double chins, 



The Short, Heavy Woman 247 

short, fat necks, and round shoulders, all of which too 
frequently accompany the short, heavy figure. 

F-shapes used near the face are a most effective means 
of making the face, neck, and figure appear longer and 
more slender. A deep, narrow V creates a greater illu- 
sion of length than a wider one. It is frequently advisable 
to emphasize the F-neckline by means of color contrast or 
other striking but not fussy or elaborate detail. A neck- 
lace of decided character, perhaps held in F-line by a 
pendant, may give a F-feeling to necklines of other shape. 

Yokes used at the shoulders usually make the figure 
seem shorter and wider. A F-yoke may be actively be- 
coming if the shoulders are not wide and heavy. Groups 
of tucks or perpendicular seamings that break the surface 
and give a well-fitting line to the shoulders make the 
shoulders seem narrower and may be used instead of a 
yoke. 

If a V- rather than straight seaming is used at the waist- 
line, the usual horizontal break may be avoided. A self- 
color belt is preferable to one of contrasting color, and a 
narrow one is more easily worn than a wide one. 

Horizontal lines in the skirt are especially bad, but 
F-shaped tiers, or a series of F-lines, are sometimes ex- 
tremely effective on the short, heavy figure. 

One of the most important guiding principles for the 
short, heavy woman is that her costume should never hide 
or shorten the length of her neck. It may be covered, but 
never merged into the head or the width of the shoulders. 
Shortening her neck makes the short, heavy woman square 
and awkward as nothing else will. 



248 The Short, Heavy Woman 

Hats 

Although her conflicting problems make many hats un- 
suitable for her, the short, heavy woman need not find the 
choice of a hat too discouraging. It is an important part 
of her costume. It should attract interest, should enhance 
her face, and, at the same time should be carefully an- 
alyzed for its effect on her figure as a whole. 

As a rule a small, brimless hat seems to add height to 
the figure, but the short, heavy woman usually has a broad 
face, which requires width at the sides of the hat as a 
background. Her problem is to find one that does not 
add width to her figure, nor prevent the eye of the observer 
from traveling the entire length of the figure. 

The small, draped turban may be actively becoming if 
the folds are kept flat and width is introduced where 
needed for background. A diagonal line may be very 
successful. Two diagonal folds producing a pointed for- 
mation may do much to increase apparent length of both 
face and figure. 

A small, close-fitting hat with flaps or "ears" at the 
sides, covering the neck, sometimes gives a slender line 
over the cheeks and may seem to be becoming to the face 
of the short, heavy woman. It is, however, destructive to 
the grace of the figure as a whole. 

A large brim may be particularly becoming to the large 
face, but it should never be chosen by the short, heavy 
woman. Instead, she may wear a brim of moderate size, 
larger on one side than on the other, and slanting up on 
one side and down on the other. 



The Short, Heavy Woman 249 

The drooping brim is bad for both broad face and short, 
heavy figure ; the upturned brim is good on both. 

The crown of the short, heavy woman's hat should 
never be large or bulky. It should follow the contours of 
the head. If it fits closely at the sides, it may be slightly 
high or pointed at the top, for height. 

Any break in the height of her hat must be avoided by 
the short, heavy woman. Contrasting color, contrasting 
bands, or, more especially, contrasting crown and brim 
produce a horizontal line that breaks the height of hat 
and figure. 

A hat that contrasts in color with that of the costume, 
especially one much lighter or darker in value, will shorten 
the apparent height of the figure almost as many inches 
as the actual measurement of the poorly chosen hat. If 
contrasting colors are introduced they should create per- 
pendicular lines. 

A hat of self-color for each costume is not only advisable 
but almost imperative for the short, heavy woman who 
would appear at her best. 

Footwear 

The short, heavy woman must take great pains to keep 
her footwear inconspicuous. Since she usually has a 
short, broad foot, she should select models that are as long 
and slender as is possible in a well-fitting shoe. This will 
make her feet, legs, and entire figure seem more slender. 
The short, heavy woman who selects too-small shoes 
makes her figure seem heavy, not only by the awkward 



250 The Short, Heavy Woman 

gait produced, but by the inadequate foundation that the 
too-small shoes give to her figure. Like the tall, heavy 
woman, she must avoid delicate, dainty shoes that seem 
inadequate to support her figure. She must even more 
carefully avoid shoes that add weight and heaviness to her 
feet and figure — wide straps, heavy stitching and perfora- 
tions, heavy leathers and soles, and contrast either in the 
shoe or between the shoe and the costume as a whole. 

Contrasting footwear, difficult for any short figure, is 
particularly disastrous to the short, heavy figure. This is 
especially true if the footwear is lighter than the costume. 
Pronounced contrasts in hose, footwear, and dress or coat 
perceptibly shorten and broaden the figure. 

Dark footwear should be worn with a dark costume, 
and relatively dark hose, as dark as permitted by the mode. 
With a costume of medium value, hose and shoes of a 
natural shade of about the same value permit a long un- 
broken line. With light dresses, light, preferably match- 
ing, shoes and inconspicuous hose may be worn. When- 
ever possible, matching hose should be chosen ; when this 
is undesirable, the same value (lightness or darkness) 
should be used* 



CHAPTER XXV 

^J—uie in, v^elali&n to yl/LaaJi 
ctwJL ^/ItaxcLctet 

7 he whole function of line in relation to the figure 
has not been fulfilled when the desired effects of 
height and slenderness have been achieved. Every cos- 
tume has a character of its own. Every occasion has a 
tone to which certain types of costume are suited. Some 
women have physiques and temperaments so marked that 
they choose always costumes preeminently suited to them- 
selves, but others make of themselves what they will by 
suiting the costume to the mood. It is understandable 
that a woman might wish to appear dignified while shop- 
ping or traveling, merely youthful in her own home of an 
afternoon, and to transform herself into a sophisticated 
creature for an evening at the theater or for some impor- 
tant social function. 

While the personality may be greatly modified by the 
lines of the costume, it cannot be completely changed. 
Designs that are entirely contradictory to the personality 
of the wearer make, by their very opposition, the conflict- 
ing personality more apparent, but do so in a way that 
makes both the individual and the costume seem awkward 
and lacking in harmony. 

251 



252 Line in Relation to Mood and Character 

Curved Lines Lend Youth and Roundness 

Rounded contours and curved lines are distinctly youth- 
ful. They give animation and gaiety to the young girl 
wearing them. The lines of her face and figure are soft- 
ened, made to seem more girlish, or even childish, if ex- 
tremely rounded effects predominate in the costume. 

Circular fullness and soft, rounded folds of soft fabric 
contribute a subtle feeling of roundness, sometimes more 
effective than the more obvious round necklines; straight, 
round skirts; round capes; and curved seamings or trim- 
mings. Round beads, particularly large round beads used 
in short round chokers and round ball earrings, contribute 
decided roundness of effect to the costume. Curves in 
hat crowns and brims, the round loops found in bows, are 
likewise important. 

Gay, youthful, round shapes, which make the girl of 
round youthful contours seem younger, may, by their very 
youthfulness, emphasize the age of the person who is no 
longer young. Modified rather than pronounced curves, 
combined with other lines, will be more becoming to 
many girls and women. 

Straight Lines Give Dignity, Simplicity, and 

Maturity 

Straight lines predominating in a costume lend an ap- 
pearance of poise and dignity. They give an air of de- 
cisiveness, yet of severity and maturity, in contrast to the 
appearance of youthfulness lent by curved lines. 

Unbroken straight lines, straight, stiff edges of fabric, 
and straight horizontal or perpendicular lines may unduly 



Line in Relation to Mood and Character 253 

emphasize severity and dignity, making the wearer seem 
staid and mature. Straight lines around the face and neck 
are for this reason difficult to wear, suitable only for the 
very young girl who wishes to add to her apparent age. 
Too many pronounced straight lines emphasize unyouth- 
ful angularity in the thin figure. They make the plump 
figure seem heavy and extremely mature. Pleats and soft 
folds give a straight line in softened effect and are much 
more easily worn than more severe, stiff, straight lines. 
The use of scarfs or necklines creating transitional lines 
frequently relieves this trying effect. 

Diagonal, Pointed Lines Are Subtle, Sophisticated 

Slanting, diagonal, or oblique lines are decidedly so- 
phisticated, lending interest to the costume and to the 
wearer. The diagonal line, well placed, shows more 
subtlety, more imagination, than either the straight or the 
curved line. Less youthful than curved lines, less mature 
than straight lines, yet possessing much of the animation 
of the former and the dignity of the latter, the diagonal 
line gives distinction and sophistication. 

Bias cuts and draping of fabric give oblique lines and 
diagonal feeling to the costume. Pointed and F-forma- 
tions composed of converging diagonal lines give much 
the same feeling to the design, though their effect is more 
obvious than that of the diagonal. The restrained use of 
F-shapes may give interesting space divisions within the 
costume. Too many pointed formations, particularly if 
poorly placed, may be angular and unpleasing. 

Curved, straight, or diagonal lines, used singly or, more 



254 Line in Relation to Mood and Character 

frequently, combined in the costume design, may greatly 
influence the apparent youthfulness, sophistication, or dig- 
nity of the wearer. The unwisely chosen costume will 
subdue the most charming personality and hide or distort 
perfection of face and figure. One wisely chosen will 
enhance a personality that otherwise would lack distinc- 
tion. It will give an illusion of perfection to face and 
figure. 



Part III 




t 




e& ot 1/ l/vwievL 



CHAPTER XXVI 



e* 



Individualized Infants' Clothing 

-n or countless years infants' apparel has been lacking 
<zz~/ in style consciousness, in individuality, in color inter- 
est. It has been chosen on the basis either of utility or of 
daintiness — daintiness conventionally pretty but seldom 
truly beautiful. Even prettiness is lost in excess of fine, 
delicate details, of too-intricate, finely scaled trimmings 
believed to be in character with the small wearer. 

Color interest. Many women go through life clinging 
to the mistaken notion that pale, delicate, baby blues are 
becoming, that "blue is my color" simply because they 
were dressed in pale blue from babyhood up. Baby blue, 
almost invariably found on all baby clothes that are not 
trimmed with an equally uninteresting pink, is usually less 
becoming than a less conventional color would be. A soft 
blue-green will be found much more interesting, more 
distinctive, and, in most cases, more flattering to the baby 
with so-called blue eyes. A true blue, in a softened, not 
too-pale tint or a blue-violet, even a pale violet or orchid 
tone, might be used. 

A delicate, pale red-orange rather than pink, one of the 
colors variously known as peach or apricot, is more inter- 

257 



258 Children's Clothes 

esting than pale pink, and, in soft, pastel tints, equally 
delicate and suitable. Soft, pale yellow may be charming 
for babies' clothing. Soft, creamy tones, for some pur- 
poses, are more pleasing than pure whites, although pure 
whites in materials that will retain their clearness after 
many washings are especially suitable for the foundation 
of babies' wardrobes. The colors may be used as an ac- 
cent or an occasional garment. 

While the very young infant may be dressed usually in 
white and very pale pastel colorings, the colors may be- 
come slightly stronger, more vital, in larger sizes for the 
more active baby, whose individuality as well as size is 
increased. 

The baby who is energetic and vivacious may wear 
definite colors, color schemes of several colors in interest- 
ing harmony, although small-patterned prints in scale 
with the size of their diminutive wearer should always be 
chosen. 

Small designs composed of two or more colors, but with 
the area so broken that the effect is that of a monotone or 
indistinct spotting of color on a light ground, will usually 
be more pleasing than bold and definite patterns. The 
extremely delicate, naturalistic, sprigged floral design, 
youthful and dainty in effect, is suitable for the first fig- 
ured materials worn by the infant; but more interesting 
designs, especially those having amusing nursery designs, 
are to be recommended for the child who is old enough to 
enjoy them. It is becoming customary to remove the 
frilly, feminine emphasis from the clothing of the baby 
boy to give young masculinity the distinction of more 



Children's Clothes 259 



simple, forceful lines and colors, and to replace each out- 
grown garment with something of more masculine char- 
acter. 

Little Girl Wants Clothes Like Mother s 

Nothing delights the little girl more than clothes that 
are enough like big sister's or mother's to make her feel 
important and grown-up. Mother, however, is likely to 
object to models that are too decidedly grown-up in as- 
pect. Big sister is likely to object if she feels that her 
clothes are too juvenile, too much like her little sister's. 
Since children's costumes, even those more or less staple 
in style, are inspired or modified by those worn by the 
more mature feminine world, there are always points 
"just like mother's." 

Similarity in design. The high waistline, so girlish on a 
child's dress, which, with its full skirt and other youthful 
detail, may be very different from mother's, gives a point 
of similarity that may be stressed to the delight of the child 
and the satisfaction of the mother who wishes small 
daughter to like her clothes. 

A buckled belt has a simple, schoolgirl air, which makes 
it suitable for both the girl of school age and the smaller 
girl of preschool age. Because belts are incorporated in 
so many models for the adult, the belt may be pointed out 
to the child as an important grown-up detail. 

An essentially youthful and simple dress may have a 
suggestion of the fitted silhouette if it is made with a 
straight, close-fitting, but not tight, bodice and a full skirt, 
making the bodice seem slimmer by contrast. 



260 Children's Clothes 



Although the child's skirts are necessarily shorter than 
those of the adult, they may assume the silhouette of long 
skirts with the low-placed flare, if they are cut and seamed 
to release fullness near the hem. This gives a graceful 
ripple over the knees that is becoming and permits active 
movement. Collars and cuffs with round lines essen- 
tially youthful in character are frequently incorporated in 
children's styles. The child herself will become more 
interested in her dress if she is told that big sister and 
mother also are wearing collars and cuffs. Although the 
lingerie touches on adults' costumes are very different in 
character, the little girl feels that it gives her dress an air 
of importance. 

Color. There are enough bright, clear colors that are 
simple in character so that it is possible for little sister, big 
sister, and mother all to wear the same hue, and all to be 
correctly and modishly dressed. There are some colors, 
especially the violet hues and black, that are sophisticated 
in appearance and less fresh and youthful than the blues, 
greens, and reds. Some tans and browns are adaptable to 
children's clothing, the lighter tans being most easily worn 
and combined with other colors. Some children may 
wear yellow and softer orange tones. The little girl with 
clear, wholesome coloring may wear fairly bright colors. 
Light, delicate tints, even those so dainty that they may 
appear weak and characterless on the adult, are frequently 
becoming to the child, although the little girl who appears 
only dainty in pale, light blue may seem much more in- 
teresting, much more definitely an individual, in a more 
emphatic color. The turquoise or blue-green shades will 



Children's Clothes 261 



frequently be pleasing. Deeper blues of middle values 
will be more becoming, as well as more practical, in most 
instances. 

Ensemble idea. The ensemble interests the child in her 
clothes, not only because her mother's and big sister's 
clothes are usually planned in this manner, but because 
she may grasp the idea of matching colors and planning 
costumes. If one especially becoming color is chosen as 
the basis of the wardrobe, for the coat, hat, and for one or 
two dresses, other dresses may be of lighter or darker 
shades of the same hue or of contrasting hues that will 
combine harmoniously with it. 

Simple adjustments. Children learn self-reliance by 
dressing themselves. Clothing should be so constructed 
as to permit this. Adjustments should be so simple that 
the child will not make mistakes and become discouraged. 

Hygiene Requirements of Growing Girl 

Although clothing for the growing girl should be be- 
coming to her, it is even more necessary that it be designed 
and selected with due consideration for its hygienic fea- 
tures. It is extremely important that the clothing of the 
growing girl be not so heavy that it is a burden to carry 
around, and that its weight be distributed so that it does 
not pull the vital organs down out of place or induce 
habits of poor posture. 

Constriction and interference with posture. Almost 
all mothers appreciate the importance of clothing that is 
loose enough to avoid constriction, and of the absence of 
tight bands that might interfere with the circulation or 



262 Children's Clothes 



cramp the abdominal region and interfere with digestion 
or other bodily functions. They like garments that have 
loose neckbands and cuffs or wristbands, especially if they 
provide room for growth. Not all mothers realize that 
constriction may occur because of a badly fitting sleeve, 
which twists and pulls upon the child's body. The body 
bones of the small child are easily pulled or pressed out of 
shape and may become set in malformations that will be 
carried through life. Shoulder and sleeve adjustments 
that induce correct posture and those designed to coax the 
body into good posture if a poor condition exists are, 
therefore, as necessary as is mere lack of tight, constricting 
bands. 

Hose supporters and underclothing must likewise avoid 
constriction, from both incorrect placement of the sup- 
porters and poor shaping of undergarments. No garment 
of this type should be worn after it has been outgrown. 
Clothing that becomes twisted and worked out of place 
upon the body is either poorly shaped or incorrectly ad- 
justed. 

Shoulder support best. Garments supported from the 
shoulders are considered most hygienic. Separate skirts 
are best when hung on underbodices that bring their 
weight to the shoulders. If they are on yokes or belts so 
that they may be worn with tuck-in blouses, the weight 
should be placed over the bony structure of the pelvic 
girdle, never over the soft and easily constricted portion 
of the body that comes at the natural waistline. 

The growing girl should be taught the correct method 
of wearing and adjusting her garments so that their weight 



Children's Clothes 263 



will always come at the proper structural points of the 
figure. Skirts that are too long to be worn low at the 
waistline should be shortened, not pulled up so that they 
pull and press downward at the natural waistline. 

Distribution of weight. Even when the weight is borne 
by the shoulders, it must be carefully distributed with 
special care that garments are not heavier in the front 
than in the back, making the girl stoop and develpp a 
posture that is awkward as well as unhygienic. A well- 
fitted shoulder and sleeve will aid in distributing weight 
evenly, in keeping the dress or coat in place, and in pre- 
venting it from pulling forward and interfering with com- 
fort and posture. 

Garter belts, provided they fit over the bony structure 
at the hips rather than drag down at the waistline, are 
preferable to round garters worn about the legs. Such 
belts should not be fastened too tightly, especially those 
that are worn in front, for if they are too tight they will 
pull downward on the abdominal organs even when worn 
low. Garters that are worn in back are less likely to be 
injurious. 

The type of underwaist or underwear that, though sup- 
ported from the shoulders, provides for the attachment 
of separate garters, meets the needs of the little girl, but is 
less liked by the girl who is in that period of rapid growth 
at the beginning of adolescence. For her a one-piece, 
smooth-fitting, but not tight-fitting, foundation garment, 
unboned, may be extremely satisfactory. It not only pro- 
vides garters of which the weight is borne by the shoulders 
or is evenly distributed, but it also gives a foundation that 



264 Children's Clothes 



prevents other garments from cutting in at the waist or 
pulling down over the abdominal region. Separate skirts 
are more easily and more hygienically worn over a light- 
weight, well-fitting foundation of this character. A 
smoother line is provided for fitted dresses. 

Garments that remain adjusted. Clothing for the 
growing girl should be of the type that remains adjusted 
and stays in position during the entire day. The active, 
growing girl, who, though interested in attractive clothes, 
does not remain conscious of them during the day, is 
likely to appear untidy and will appreciate the type of 
clothing that is structurally well fitted and does not pull 
out of place. Flying ends, sashes, and panels are not for 
the growing girl's everyday costumes. Belts should pos- 
sess sufficient body so that they do not easily turn and 
twist, and they should either have straps to hold them 
trimly in place or be securely fastened in position. 

Room for growth. During the age when most girls 
grow very rapidly, it is desirable that their clothing be con- 
structed in such a manner that there is room for growth. 
Even when the expense of replacement is not an important 
consideration, as it is in the majority of families, it is 
essential that the clothing allow for some growth and de- 
velopment; otherwise it is likely to restrict growth or cause 
bad posture before the wearer and her mother realize how 
tight it is. For comfort in well-fitting garments choose 
models having fullness over the developing bust, and 
raglan sleeves or saddle shoulders cut so that they conform 
easily to the figure. Inverted pleats at the back of a waist 
or coat of the type that is so frequently used in adults' 
active sport apparel give the growing girl room for devel- 



Children's Clothes 265 



opment and freedom of movement. Wide seams and 
deep hems, which permit of alteration, increase the length 
of service that may be obtained from the growing girl's 
clothing. 

Warmth and weight. Lightweight woolens, which do 
not cause the body to become overheated and which pre- 
vent it from feeling sudden changes of temperature, are 
preferred by many mothers for winter dresses. Others 
feel that these are too warm for heated buildings, that 
cotton or simple silk dresses are more suitable, that extra 
warmth and protection should be supplied by outer gar- 
ments, while indoor clothing should be sufficiently light- 
weight and porous in construction to permit ventilation 
and evaporation of moisture from the skin. 

Although the growing girl herself and many mothers 
do not believe woolen underwear is desirable for the girl 
who is indoors much of the day, lightweight woolen 
hosiery is usually considered desirable. In attractive col- 
ors, which harmonize with the colors and the character of 
the dress and coat, it will not be objectionable to the girl, 
although she will probably prefer silk hose. Lisle hose is 
smart for active sport wear. 

Color Diminishes Awkwardness 

The colors employed in the costumes of the growing 
girl may do much to lessen the awkwardness so charac- 
teristic of the growing period. It is important that colors 
be considered first from the standpoint of their becoming- 
ness to the individual and then from the standpoint of 
creating a harmonious wardrobe with little liability of 
error in combinations of apparel. The growing girl her- 



266 Children's Clothes 



self, unless she is under constant and careful supervision, 
is too likely to combine colors that should not be used 
together simply because she likes each color individually. 

The young girl with a radiant, healthful complexion 
has much greater freedom in her choice of colors than 
does the girl whose coloring is sallow or who is bothered 
with adolescent skin difficulties. Bright colors, which are 
so essentially youthful, may, therefore, be worn by the 
young girl who has no serious defects in her complexion. 

The girl whose skin is less perfect must avoid extremely 
bright colors, and she must likewise avoid those natural 
beiges that are similar in color to her sallow skin. What- 
ever her general coloring, if her skin is sallow and imper- 
fect, she should avoid vivid blues and all violet shades and 
bright oranges and yellows. Yellow-browns must like- 
wise be avoided. 

She will find among the most flattering colors dark, but 
not too vivid, blues, dark greens, especially dark blue- 
greens, dark reds, and particularly dark wine-reds that 
verge on the violet-red and dark red-oranges that include 
the red-brown range. Off-whites with a light, warm tint, 
pastel red-orange, and light blue-greens, if not too vivid, 
are likewise generally becoming. 

The growing girl will appear clumsy and awkward if 
she clings to the characterless "baby blues," "candy pinks," 
and similar colors in which babies and small children are 
usually dressed. Combinations of two well-chosen colors, 
or occasionally of three harmonious ones, will do much 
to make each costume more interesting and to emphasize 
the individuality of the youthful wearer. 



CHAPTER XXVII 
J-kc j/l/il^ lit ^t^tcc J-i 



een£ 



I lmost all young girls are strongly influenced by a 
<z?4- desire to have others comment favorably about them 
and their appearance. Young girls of high-school age 
usually fear being thought different. They dress as nearly 
as possible like their classmates and friends. Only the 
very courageous and daring, those few who set the fashion 
in their group rather than follow it, will be happy in wear- 
ing styles that are not already universally accepted in their 
small world. 

The slightly older girl, who has passed through the 
imitative stage, desires to be individual and distinctive as 
strongly as the younger girl fears being queer. She may 
wear unbecoming styles simply because they are new or 
different. For this reason she needs more guidance than 
does the girl who wears more standardized types of 
apparel. 

The younger girl is frequently difficult to fit because 
she does not wear foundation garments. Even though 
her figure be straight and slim, it is seldom firm enough, 
or its lines smooth and flowing enough, for many of the 
styles of the present day. Pleated skirts, or full, circular 
skirts in which the fullness does not begin too far down, 
may frequently be combined with a slim, fitted bodice, 

267 



268 The Miss in Her 'Teens 

thus emphasizing the slimness of the figure without mak- 
ing the unrestrained hips too apparent. Casual jackets 
and skirts seem especially suited to the youthful and im- 
mature figure. 

Little care. The young girl has seldom learned to take 
good care of her clothing, to make the constant small 
repairs, and to do the cleaning and pressing necessary to 
keep a wardrobe in good condition. As she is usually 
hard on her clothes, because she is both active and care- 
less, her wardrobe should be of materials and styles that 
require little attention. 

Colors and fabrics that do not show spots easily and that 
will not pull apart at the strain of seams are almost as nec- 
essary to the girl who is nearly twenty as to children. 

Comfort and freedom. Youth, almost without excep- 
tion, demands apparel that permits freedom of move- 
ment, clothes that will not pull apart and appear untidy 
at vigorous, unthinking activity. For this reason, many 
girls, even those who wish the extremely long skirt for 
formal evening wear, cling to the extremely short skirt, 
shorter than that approved by fashionists today. For 
active sports this is still considered correct and may ap- 
propriately be worn for all activities with which the longer 
skirt would definitely interfere. For street wear the 
slightly longer skirt, long enough at least to cover the 
bend of the knee, is usually more becoming. 

The one-piece dress, which has returned to high favor, 
is suited to the young girl because it cannot pull apart and 
become untidy at the waist or hipline as the two-piece 
dress frequently does. The tuck-in blouse or sweater, if 



The Miss in Her 'Teens 269 

1 

long enough to extend well down under the skirt, and 
to blouse enough to permit raising the arms without dis- 
arranging the costume, is especially appropriate and ap- 
pealing to the junior. Jackets giving the requisite com- 
fort and freedom of movement are also to be recom- 
mended. They have the added advantage of covering the 
figure that is imperfectly proportioned or that has not the 
smooth hipline that is needed with the tuck-in blouse. 

Revealed forehead. The hats with the exposed forehead 
are youth's own style. They are thought to have been 
created because the so-called American flapper insisted on 
wearing her hats perched on the back of her head. It 
usually interests the young girl to realize that this smart 
mode was created expressly for her and that only the 
youthful face appears to advantage in the severe line of 
the almost completely exposed forehead. 

Fabrics. The tweeds, the knitted fabrics, the soft plain 
crepe in the mode today are especially appropriate to the 
needs of the young girl. Tweeds require little care; 
knitted fabrics possess the same advantage and the added 
comfort incident to their elastic character, which permits 
freedom of movement. Soft crepes hang in graceful, 
youthful lines, being both comfortable and becoming. 
The young girl appears best in these fabrics and should 
choose them and avoid the regal, intricate brocades, the 
metallic fabrics with hard gleam, which are too sophisti- 
cated to be in character with costumes becoming youth. 

Adaptability. The type and color of the accessories, 
and frequently of larger items, must be carefully consid- 
ered, as the girl usually possesses a smaller number than 



270 The Miss in Her 'Teens 

the woman. She must often wear the same top coat, the 
same hat, shoes, gloves, and other items with many dif- 
ferent types of dresses and for numerous occasions; for 
this reason it is important that they harmonize. 

A frequent mistake of the young girl is that of wearing 
hats, coats, and dresses, each of different colors or of colors 
that neither match nor harmonize, thus giving an untidy, 
poorly groomed appearance. 

Apt and Inapt Age Emphasis 

The junior girl, who has reached the age when her in- 
dividuality should be recognized and accented by means 
of her apparel, may make many mistakes in attempting to 
find garments suitable to her type. She may wear cos- 
tumes too important and mature or she may err by choos- 
ing too-youthful costumes. An understanding of her 
most frequent mistakes aids in the selection of appropriate 
and becoming costumes. 

Sometimes, in the attempt to appear older and more dig- 
nified, sometimes because of lack of knowledge, the junior 
buys apparel with lines so straight, stiff, and mature that 
they seem very obviously created for a much older woman. 

Straight lines need not be avoided entirely; in fact, their 
use is essential in many types of simple, practical costumes. 
When employed in the costume for the junior, they should, 
however, be combined with rounded or curved lines. 
Soft folds that, in themselves, produce rounded contours 
may take the place of actual roundness of outline. 

Just as the young girl who has never had long hair likes 
to experiment with its highly feminine effect, so does the 



The Miss in Her 'Teens 271 

girl who has never worn long skirts like to wear them 
whenever they are fashionable. She wants her formal 
evening dresses extremely long — longer than are graceful 
or practical for the young active figure. Her long even- 
ing dresses will be most becoming and more comfortable 
if they clear the floor by an inch or two, so that she may 
dance without fear of tripping on them. Trains, even 
though they be slight and graceful in themselves, are only 
awkward on the girl who has not learned to handle them 
gracefully. 

In the daytime the miss in her 'teens likes to wear her 
skirts the accepted adult street length, which, in the days 
when short skirts are fashionable, usually gives her a de- 
cided advantage over older women who usually do not 
find them so becoming as she does. When longer skirts 
are fashionable, the adolescent girl still does well to wear 
her skirts fairly short, remembering that one of the chief 
reasons for longer skirts is that of flattering the more dif- 
ficult figure. 

The long skirt made of soft material draped or hung in 
a simple manner may be very charming on the junior. 
Full, gathered skirts are more likely to be becoming than 
those wrapped in close, swathed lines or those with intri- 
cate trains or flying, dangling parts, for the young and 
active person seldom has either the carriage or the patience 
to wear trains successfully. Her walk is seldom leisurely 
enough to give graceful flutter to loose panels, which fly 
out awkwardly with her brisk, vigorous movements. 

While many mothers welcome the longer skirt, they 
usually like to see their daughters attired in a simple 



272 The Miss in Her 'Teens 

youthful manner, in a style more youthful than the 
daughter herself may desire. The daughter may some- 
times be discouraged from wearing trains and intricate 
types of skirts if she is reminded that they are difficult to 
dance in and are usually heartily disliked by young men. 

The higher waistline and the fitted, slender waistline 
are preeminently youthful fashions, which appear to best 
advantage on the youthful, slender figure. Not all junior 
girls, however, have the requisite slender figure to wear 
the definitely fitted waistline or the high normal waistline. 
Many adolescent girls, either because they are not well pro- 
portioned or because they are not wearing foundation gar- 
ments that give a smooth, unbroken line to the figure, 
look best in waistlines slightly below normal and in belts 
that are not drawn tightly so as to cause a definite inden- 
tation at the waistline. Many girls accept the new high- 
belted styles too enthusiastically and draw their belts too 
high and too tight. The tuck-in blouse and the simple, 
belted dress, being practical and youthfully becoming, are 
excellent styles for the junior. 

The junior girl, just beginning to wear interesting and 
individual apparel and to attend important social func- 
tions, is often tempted to wear too-intricate and regal 
types. Our customs and conventions permit the young 
girl to wear styles that would be considered unsuitable for 
the European girl. No junior, however, should make the 
mistake of wearing really elaborate apparel in costly, 
highly decorative fabrics, with intricate detail. She should 
especially avoid costumes that require a studied carriage 
or constant manipulation, which may destroy the simple 



The Miss in Her 'Teens 273 

naturalness of her manner. Many and ornate accessories 
and elaborate slippers detract from rather than add to the 
interest of a junior girl. 

The costume of the girl in her 'teens should not be 
devoid of interest; simplicity should not be carried to the 
extreme. Softened lines are better than severity; unusual, 
interesting, and, sometimes, striking detail may be em- 
ployed; but the accents should not be so strong and con- 
spicuous that attention is detracted from the youthful 
wearer and concentrated, instead, upon her costume. 

Heavy folds of fabric, too-straight lines, unfitted gar- 
ments giving a straight rather than a naturally curved 
silhouette make the figure seem heavier and more mature 
than it actually is. By choosing the type of dress planned 
to hide the bad lines of the more mature figure, the junior 
associates herself with the heaviness and maturity these 
lines were contrived to conceal. 

The dress that reveals the natural lines of the figure ac- 
centuates the youthfulness of the wearer, yet reveals the 
"young lady" silhouette, which differentiates the junior 
from her younger sister and from the straight, casually 
fitting apparel that she has been wearing most of her life. 

The junior who clings to extremely short garments and 
very rounded outlines, as round collars and short, full 
skirts, has much the appearance of being overgrown and 
awkward. Her apparel, because it is too childish, appears 
too small, the outgrown old clothes of past seasons. 

She may choose slightly longer skirts than children 
wear, and have them pleated or youthfully flared, and she 
should choose less obviously rounded lines and a youthful 



274 The Miss in Her 'Teens 

jacket of straight but casual character. She may wear the 
sport coat with jaunty, wide, notched lapels, but not the 
narrow, straight lapels of the older woman or the round 
collar of her younger sister. Her costume as a whole 
should show greater individuality in the selection of details 
than the apparel of the little girl. 

Many juniors and the elders who advise or supervise 
them in their selection of apparel make the mistake of 
combining essentially youthful, even childish details with 
those that are sophisticated and mature. One sees the 
young girl wearing longer, uneven hemlines with low- 
heeled, round-toed slippers, even with oxfords. She wears 
the softly feminine draped or flared costume with the 
boyish beret, at once too youthful, too informal, and too 
round in line for the longer lines of the new silhouette. 

It is possible to have a combination of youthful details 
and more sophisticated interest, to employ soft, youthful 
lines, rounded contours, and the longer outlines of the new 
silhouette together with all parts of the costume chosen to 
harmonize with each other. 

Junior Types 

Girls of the so-called junior age neither look alike, act 
alike, nor think and feel alike. That they should not be 
dressed alike, except in those camps and schools that make 
clothes unimportant by means of uniforms, is a conclusion 
with which there will be little dispute. The junior girl's 
own interests and tastes influence the apparel selected. 
Sometimes, however, her own diagnosis of her type, of 



The Miss in Her 'Teens 275 

her difficulties and problems, as well as of her assets, may 
be inaccurate and misleading. 

A junior of small, rounded figure, of youthful but 
rather fragile, childish appearance, announced that she 
could not wear anything but sport clothes, because she 
was of the athletic type. Her problem is that of selecting 
soft, flattering lines that will permit free, active move- 
ments. Of course, for active sports she should still wear 
apparel designed for that purpose, but more casually tail- 
ored, with more feminine detail than the mannish tailor- 
ing that she has hitherto worn. 

Conflicts between the problems of physical character- 
istics and activities or of preconceived notions of apparel 
are frequent. While these several factors influence ap- 
parel selection, the physical characteristics of face and 
figure should usually be the first consideration. 

Youthful, childish type. Many junior girls still ap- 
pear much like younger children. Sometimes this is be- 
cause they are less mature than the average girl of their 
age, sometimes because they have the small frames and 
rounded contours that will always make them appear 
younger than their actual years. While this will be an 
asset in later years, the junior girl is sometimes sensitive 
and frequently feels at a disadvantage. 

The very youthful junior must avoid both very young 
round lines, which emphasize her youthfulness, and those 
mature, straight lines and heavy, important fabrics that 
obviously are not suited to her, and which, by their very 
contrast with her youthful face and figure, make her 



276 The Miss in Her 'Teens 

appear even younger. Discreet use of more sophisticated, 
interesting detail and avoidance of that which is entirely 
youthful, coupled with apparel that focuses attention on 
the wearer by emphasizing some pleasing feature, will 
prevent this type of junior from passing unnoticed as a 
child. 

Petite, sophisticated type. Very similar in size to the 
youthful, childish type, but with less round, childish con- 
tours, the petite, sophisticated type appears more definitely 
individual. She tends to appear older than she actually is. 
Sometimes she has deliberately chosen to appear older, 
but very frequently she wishes to appear more youthful 
without wearing childish types that obviously are unsuited 
to her. 

Her mother and other adults in her family are usually 
even more desirous of having her appear young, fresh, 
wholesome, rather than sophisticated. They may choose 
styles that are simple and smart without being extreme, 
which introduce enough rounded lines and soft folds of 
fabric to give a fresh, youthful appearance. 

Tall, slender, youthful type. The tall, slender, youthful 
girl, considered typical of American youth, has little dif- 
ficulty in selecting her apparel. Her problem becomes 
that of choosing from many becoming styles rather than 
that of finding any that are suitable. She should not, of 
course, choose styles too dignified or important, but if she 
does select these older ones, she has less difficulty in carry- 
ing them without appearing stolid or mature or ridicu- 
lously overdressed than do the other junior girls. When 



The Miss in Her 'Teens 277 

occasion or mood demands, she may wear very youthful 
styles. 

Tall, overgrown girl. The girl who is actually too tall 
and overgrown rather than tall and well proportioned, 
whose arms and legs seem too long for her to handle 
gracefully, who seems awkward because her figure is not 
fully developed and is angular rather than rounded, who 
has not learned to carry her new height easily has a dif- 
ficult time selecting becoming apparel. Sometimes she 
appears best in lines designed to lessen height, and to give 
increased width, for usually she is very thin as a result of 
her rapid growth. Garments that fit loosely, casually, yet 
carefully enough so that they do not appear untidy and do 
not become disarranged easily, are most suitable. The girl 
of this type has seldom learned to wear her clothes well 
and should not have garments that require constant ad- 
justment or measured and graceful carriage. 

Well-developed, mature type. The large girl with a 
well-developed, mature figure tends to appear much older 
than she is, usually so much older that it makes her em- 
barrassed and unhappy and robs her of pleasant contacts 
with others of her own age. Much of this mature appear- 
ance may be removed by well-chosen apparel, by lines 
that are sufficiently rounded or curved to give a youthful 
feeling, but not so rounded that the figure becomes rotund 
by reason of the curves emphasized in the costume. Soft 
materials hanging in graceful but not too voluminous 
folds, garments that fit neither too loosely nor too tightly, 
and, above, ah> simplicity without severity are especially 



278 The Miss in Her 'Teens 

apt for the junior girl of mature figure. She should avoid 
wearing skirts longer than the mode, as they will give her 
a heavy appearance ; yet she cannot wear them shorter, for 
this, too, would make her conspicuous and, in many cases, 
would reveal heavy, solid-looking legs. All extreme 
styles attracting undue attention should be avoided, and 
interest should be centered as near the face as possible so 
that the maturity of the figure will be less apparent. 

Solid, overweight type. The heavy, overweight girl, 
especially the girl of large proportion, appears stolid and 
mature, much older than her years. Her movements are 
likely to be awkward because of the large bulk she pos- 
sesses, although occasionally girls who have always been 
large are surprisingly graceful. 

Fussy, frilled clothing and dainty, fragile fabrics give 
her an extremely awkward appearance; they seem so 
inconsistent with their wearer's lack of personal daintiness 
that they may appear ridiculous. Fine, minute detail 
should likewise be avoided, as its scale is not in keeping 
with that of the wearer. Simple outlines with space divi- 
sions that break the surface, making size inconspicuous, 
are most becoming. Too many straight lines will em- 
phasize maturity. Striking colors or designs and bulky 
fabrics are always to be avoided. 

Short, rotund type. The short girl who is overweight 
is likely to seem much shorter and heavier, much more 
poorly proportioned in comparison to her actual over- 
weight than is the tall, large-framed girl who is too heavy. 
The short girl does not appear so mature as does the girl 
of larger frame. Because her round lines give a youthful, 



The Miss in Her 'Teens 279 

even a babyish, appearance, she may wear straight, perpen- 
dicular lines, which will increase her apparent height and 
lessen width without making her appear too mature. The 
heavy girl of large frame frequently finds that these slen- 
derizing lines must be softened to relieve the maturity that 
they emphasize in her figure. 

The short, rotund girl must avoid all round and curved 
lines; even soft, rounded folds of fabric will increase the 
roundness of her face and figure. Bulky fabrics, adding 
even a fraction of an inch to her actual width, will make 
her appear appreciably heavier and more round, or, some- 
times, if the lines are heavy, square rather than round. 

Campus Costumes 

Where does the junior live? Where does she go to 
school ? Is she still in high school, preparatory school, or 
college? Where is the school located? What are her 
social contacts in and out of school? Wardrobe require- 
ments are influenced by the location of the school — in 
country region, small town, or large city — and by whether 
or not it is coeducational. 

The college located in the country, with many acres of 
wooded campus, grass, gravel walks perhaps, and paths, 
demands apparel of a casual character. High-heeled, 
thin-soled, low-cut shoes would be neither practical nor 
comfortable for daily wear. Berets, casual felt hats, or a 
total absence of head covering is much more usual than 
the smart, carefully fitted hat that would be worn in town. 
Comfortable, casual sport clothes of the type suited for 
activity, if not for specific sports, are more suitable than 



280 The Miss in Her 'Teens 

tailored street costumes or even sport apparel of the spec- 
tator type. 

Wool dresses, preferably of lightweight wools that are 
not too warm for heated buildings, but which offer some 
protection against the sudden changes of temperature, are 
needed in the wardrobe of the girl on the large campus 
where buildings and classes are some distance apart. 
While simple silk dresses are worn, especially in warmer 
weather, they are less important than in the city college. 
Skirts and blouses or sweaters and jackets in the more 
casual manner compose practical and youthfully becoming 
suits. Leather jackets and coats of tweed and camel's 
hair are more necessary for daily wear than those of less 
sturdy fabrics and more formal character. Waterproofs 
are always needed. 

The types of clothes needed for off-the-campus occasions 
and for activities other than those that are part of the daily 
routine will vary according to the individual and the col- 
lege. All girls will need at least one smart street and 
traveling costume. Some girls will find a suit of a less 
casual character more becoming and practical ; others will 
choose separate daytime dresses and coats. 

At least one simple afternoon dress of becoming color 
and well-cut, youthfully draped lines is needed for teas, 
informal dinners, and evening occasions for which formal 
wear is not required, but for which the sportswear usually 
worn throughout the day is unsuitable. In some colleges 
the majority of girls have little need for dinner gowns or 
semiformal evening dress, and require formal dress only 
for one or two proms or other important dances. In 



The Miss in Her 'Teens 281 

others, formal evening wear is less needed than semi- 
formal wear. 

The number of week ends permitted away from the 
campus as well as the social contacts of the individual will 
largely determine the formal clothes required by each 
junior. Suitable accessories for each type of costume must 
be included. The junior, however, wears fewer and sim- 
pler accessories than the woman. 

The girl who attends a city college, perhaps while living 
at home and going back and forth in subways or surface 
cars, needs much more tailored and formal apparel. Her 
daytime costumes, while they should be simple, practical, 
and youthful, must be appropriate for the street and sys- 
tems of public transportation. Her suits must be less 
casual, her accessories more formal ; she must wear gloves 
and a hat. While she may have tweeds, camel's hair, and 
other practical wool coats, she has less need of garments 
intended for more active outdoor pursuits. Her water- 
proofs are best in somber tones, in finishes that give them 
the appearance of a street coat rather than of a raincoat. 
The city schoolgirl may use more simple silk and fewer 
wool dresses than the girl on a campus in the country. 

Walking shoes with leather heels and welt soles of firm, 
durable leather are best suited to the spectator type of 
sport clothes or the tailored costumes the schoolgirl wears 
in the city. Moderately high heels, higher than those 
worn on the large, woody campus, are permissible. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

oung women are and can afford to be more highly 
individual in their selection of apparel than women 
of any other age. Young girls necessarily have certain 
problems in common dictated by school and social custom 
and by the similarity of the childish figures. Middle 
years and the later years of life likewise produce many 
characteristics that are similar in women of like age; but 
we do not think first of the young woman as a young 
woman, but as an individual. The young woman will 
find her costume requirements dictated by her figure and 
face type and by her daily activities. Since she is usually 
more active both in business and social life than women 
of other ages, she frequently has need for more types of 
clothing. She may learn to establish with consistency 
various identities suitable for her business and social life. 
She must not forget that her apparel should minimize 
defects of face and figure as much as possible, and at the 
same time emphasize her most attractive characteristics. 

Accenting Individuality 

The young woman who has reached early maturity, 
who has the self-confidence and poise usually lacking in 
the young girl, and who has yet suffered none of the de- 

282 



The Young Woman 283 

structive effects of time that lessen physical charms has 
much less difficult dress problems than does the woman of 
more advanced years. Individual characteristics become 
important; there are fewer problems common to all 
women of this age. 

The first requirement that the younger woman should 
make of her costumes, and the one that she frequently 
either consciously or unconsciously does make, is that of 
t consistency with her type. A garment that, in itself, is 
perfect in design and execution is pleasing and correct 
only if it is consistent in feeling with the face and figure 
of the wearer, which is the structural basis of the design. 

Not only the actual proportions of the figure or the 
actual shape of the face should be considered when select- 
ing designs, but also the more subtle distinctions based 
upon feeling and personality. Some persons seem so re- 
served, so quiet in physical and mental personality, that 
costumes of striking design, of vibrant character, would 
be inconsistent and inappropriate. Other persons are so 
energetic and forceful that apparel of delicate, fragile 
character seems totally out of place when worn by them. 
Still other persons are so dainty in appearance that apparel 
of harsh texture or severe mannish lines seems obviously 
not to belong to them. It is possible for each woman to 
determine the type of apparel that is most appropriate to 
herself and to recognize designs that seem to have been 
created for her. 

Most women can increase their own interest and pleas- 
ure in their clothes and make their personalities more 
varied and interesting to others by varying the type of 



284 The Young Woman 

their costumes. While most individuals are limited as to 
the types of apparel that they may wear, few women are 
so limited that they may successfully wear only one type. 
Many women limit themselves to a single definite type of 
apparel, so that all their costumes appear alike. If this 
one type is well selected and is truly suited to the wearer, 
the mistake, although it does create monotony and makes 
the wearer less interesting than she need appear, is not so 
serious an error as wearing unbecoming clothes. 

The young woman who is fairly well proportioned, who 
has no serious defect of face or figure to overcome, can 
readily change her appearance and her apparent person- 
ality by varying her costume. In dressing suitably for 
each occasion, but in accordance with her type, the woman 
who has many activities will obtain sufficient variety in 
her costumes. She will find active sport types, tailored 
types, and softer and more formal types of apparel that 
will express her personality. The woman who has fewer 
activities, who does not dress for so great a variety of occa- 
sions, must strive more consciously to vary her type. The 
woman with pronounced defects of face or figure must be 
even more careful, for she must avoid extreme types that 
might tend to focus attention upon defects. 

Not only the activities of the individual, but her tem- 
perament, carriage, and movements limit or extend the 
types of apparel that are becoming and suitable to her. 
The woman who moves slowly, with rhythmic, graceful 
movements, may wear floating drapes and intricate details 
that would appear awkward on a woman with quick, 
jerky movements. On the other hand, the woman who 



The Young Woman 285 

moves slowly but heavily cannot wear the flowing drap- 
eries that add grace to her more languid sister; and the 
woman who is forceful and energetic, with even, quick 
motions, needs apparel that will express her force and vigor 
without interfering with her freedom of movement. 

Color, always a vital consideration in costume design, is 
extremely useful in establishing distinctive individual 
dress becoming to the wearer and making her a distinct 
personality. Some persons characteristically wear certain 
colors and establish their individualities by this means. If 
the color is at all unusual in tone, this may be an extremely 
effective means of appearing more imaginative than the 
majority of women, who wear given colors merely because 
other women are wearing them and make themselves 
parts of the masses rather than distinctive individuals. It 
is especially important that the color be becoming, for an 
unusual color that is not flattering to the wearer serves 
only to attract attention to undesirable characteristics. 

The woman striving to emphasize individuality need 
not fear monotony in confining herself to a few becoming 
colors. There are usually three or four hues and two or 
three tones of each hue that the individual will find be- 
coming and that will add vitality and charm to her ap- 
pearance. Thus, the woman who looks best in greens 
may be able to wear both greens and blue-greens and find 
them becoming in several values and intensities. She 
may, therefore, adapt these colors as the keynote colors of 
her wardrobe, habitually wearing them either in duller 
intensities for the foundation of her wardrobe or in smaller 
notes as an accent. For variety, she may wear the oppo- 



286 The Young Woman 

site or complementary colors, the red and orange tones, 
which may be used as accents to dull grayed greens or by 
themselves in dull intensities with accents of the greens 
and blue-greens. 

The Very Feminine Woman 

The woman of soft, feminine personality, the passive 
type with a suggestion of fragility and gentleness, should 
be costumed to emphasize her delicate, dainty charm. If 
she wears clothes that are too forceful, too strong, and too 
striking, her personality is submerged and weakened. It 
is her problem, therefore, to emphasize her soft, feminine 
quality, neither submerging it nor lessening its beauty by 
apparel totally lacking in distinction and character. 

Color is especially important to the woman of soft, 
gentle personality. If she wears dull, drab, uninteresting 
colors, she herself, with her none too-definite or striking 
personality, may become insignificant in appearance and 
lacking in distinction. If she wears colors of subtle, soft- 
ened intensity, with interesting arrangements of unusual 
but not too-bold or striking color harmonies, she gains in 
distinction and charm. Lacking vivid, forceful coloring 
herself, she must not choose colors so neutral that they 
give a monotonous appearance to the combined colorings 
of the costume and herself. 

While the dull, neutral colors will prevent her being 
seen at all, extremely vivid colors will cause the costume 
to become very evident, but the wearer will sink into the 
background. Colors should be chosen that will enhance 
the personal coloring of the wearer, overcome defects of 



The Young Woman 287 

complexion, give added life and vitality to the hair, and 
deepen the coloring of the eyes. 

Dainty, filmy fabrics, cobwebby laces, and even crisp, 
transparent finishes emphasize the dainty, fragile char- 
acter of the soft, feminine type. Heavy clothes, stiff 
fabrics of elaborate, elegant character require much more 
dignity than the dainty woman possesses to carry them 
successfully; their wearer appears less important than the 
imposing costume. 

The demure, restrained costume emphasizes the repose 
and gentleness of the wearer and makes her appear a more 
distinctive and interesting individual; her costume be- 
comes a background consistent with the character of the 
wearer. Simplicity of design, raised to distinction by 
means of dainty, feminine detail, wise color accent, and 
perhaps the contrast of lingerie touches at neck and wrist, 
emphasizes the quiet charm of the less aggressive person- 
ality. Details centered near the face aid in drawing at- 
tention to this feature, which should be the center of 
interest in a costume that expresses the gentle personality 
of the wearer. 

The Forceful, Energetic Woman 

The young woman who belongs to the more vigorous 
type should wear costumes that express her own forceful 
personality. A basic rule of costume design is that colors 
should never be more forceful than the physical person- 
ality of the wearer. This permits the woman of forceful, 
energetic character to wear definite, decided colors that 
are denied many women. Weak, pale colors may make 



288 The Young Woman 

her own coloring appear coarse, while forceful colors 
further vitalize her appearance. Distinctive and charac- 
terful, even bold, color contrasts are frequently advisable, 

The quick, active, energetic movements of the forceful 
woman are at variance with costumes designed with many 
soft floating ends, fluttering details that appear untidy and 
bedraggled on the woman of quick, brisk movements. 
They give her an appearance of being agitated, of poor 
poise. Simple tailored lines should characterize her cos- 
tume, with details manipulated so that the entire costume 
moves with the wearer rather than fluttering out away 
from the figure. Freedom of movement, so essential to 
the grace of the woman of brisk, energetic action, should 
always be permitted by the costume. 

Round lines, giving softer, more feminine contours, are 
hardly consistent with the personality of the woman of 
strength and vigor. Short, broken lines, destroying the 
harmony of her vigorous, clear-cut outlines, should never 
be recommended for the active, aggressive type of woman. 
Straight, unbroken lines, both in perpendicular and di- 
agonal arrangement, are usually becoming to the vigorous 
personality, emphasizing dignity and poise. 

The person of vigorous, aggressive character may some- 
times wish to appear more daintily feminine than her 
natural personality. She may, if she so wishes, wear cos- 
tumes with softer details, slightly more feminine in aspect 
than her own personality. She should not, however, 
make the mistake of wearing extremely dainty garments, 
which, by their contrast with her more vigorous person- 
ality, will give her a suggestion of masculinity. 



The Young Woman 289 

The severely tailored costume should not have mascu- 
line details or accessories, but rather those with a youthful, 
boyish note. Only the young, fresh-looking woman can 
afford to strive for a masculine effect, either boyish or 
mannish. Usually the severely tailored costume is most 
pleasing when relieved by simple accessories that show 
feminine thought and imagination. 

Designs of striking character, those employing definite, 
clear-cut outlines, decided contrasts in vivid colors, can be 
worn by the woman of forceful personality. Opaque ma- 
terials that assume simple, clear-cut lines or sturdy fabrics 
that have a strong vigorous character readily lend them- 
selves to costumes that enhance the personality of the 
vigorous, active woman. 



CHAPTER XXIX 
J^kc yVildJLlc Lji 



M 



o woman desires to appear middle aged. As a mat- 
ter of fact, women of middle age usually appear 
either years older than their actual age or, if they have 
attempted to remedy this defect, years younger. There 
is a long period between youth and age during which time 
a woman's appearance should express her individuality 
without giving an impression of any age. 

Women of middle age frequently have more distinct 
personalities than they had when younger, although some 
of them have become submerged by their home duties, 
by lack of attention to their clothing, and by nondescript 
costumes. The clothes of the middle-aged woman should 
express the experience and the importance, which years 
may bring, and thus give her a distinction that youth lacks. 

The middle-aged woman frequently fails to see the 
changes that the years have made in her face and figure. 
She sees in the mirror the image that was there ten or even 
twenty years ago. She clings to youthful styles, not in a 
determined effort to retain youth, but because she has not 
seen their unsuitability for herself. It is better to err on 
the side of apparel more staid than the actual years justify 
than to lack dignity entirely. The conservative costume 
may make the face seem young by contrast. 

290 



The Middle Years 291 

The young girl with the beauty that nearly always 
accompanies youth and health may wear inexpensive ma- 
terials, imitation jewels, and other devices that give an 
"effect"; the woman of middle age finds that genuineness 
and quality are needed to give her grace and dignity. A 
high grade of simulated pearls or other synthetic costume 
jewelry of quality might, of course, be worn, but it is best 
to restrict the middle-aged woman's jewelry to one or two 
good pieces that have definite relation to the costume with 
which they are worn. 

Another frequent error is that of choosing lace for wear 
with costumes with which it is inconsistent. Many mid- 
dle-aged women, as well as older women, place great value 
on "real" lace, that is, lace that is hand made, which does, 
of course, possess quality and genuineness, but which is 
not always suitable for the costume. On the other hand, 
fine qualities of machine-made laces may be most appro- 
priate and pleasing for an entire gown for the middle-aged 
woman, yet she may reject them because to her they are 
not "real" lace. Other middle-aged women err on the 
opposite side, wearing coarse, inexpensive machine-made 
laces, in large amounts and with fabrics and lines with 
which lace is utterly inappropriate. 

Simplicity Gives Distinction 

Simplicity and quality should be the keynotes of the 
middle-aged woman's costume. Simplicity gives an es- 
sentially youthful appearance. A garment giving a youth- 
ful effect removes many years from the apparent age of the 
woman who habitually wears elaborate effects. Intricacy 



292 The Middle Years 



of cut and fine detail are found in many smart garments 
that retain an effect characteristically simple. Although 
many persons are inclined to believe the contrary, a great 
many smart fashions are designed for the mature woman. 

The well-designed costume should never be more force- 
ful in appearance than the personality, both mental and 
physical, of the wearer. As the middle-aged woman usu- 
ally has a less alert carriage, less definite and forceful col- 
oring, less clear-cut features, and, usually, slower speech 
and manner of thought than the younger woman, there 
is greater likelihood of her personality being submerged 
by a conspicuous costume. Striking lines, vivid colors, the 
extreme and bizarre, detract both from her dignity and her 
personality. Occasionally, a woman of middle age may 
still have a vivacious manner and definite physical beauty, 
which will permit the wearing of forceful apparel. 

As the middle-aged woman tends to be heavier, with 
less free movement than the younger woman, heavy, 
clumsy effects in clothing must be studiously avoided. 
Dark, heavy, thick materials and lines that suggest bulk 
and weight — particularly those that appear poorly bal- 
anced, and, therefore, awkward and difficult to carry — 
should be eliminated from the middle-aged woman's cos- 
tume. 

Textures become especially important at middle age, for 
they may materially add or detract from the grace of the 
figure. Soft, supple fabrics, those that hang in graceful 
folds without clinging unduly, are most flattering. Bulky 
fabrics create angularities and accentuate any defects of 
figure or movement. Stiff fabrics, as taffeta, are likewise 



The Middle Years 293 

difficult; only the woman with an exceptionally youthful 
face and figure finds them becoming at middle age. Fab- 
rics with an indefinite pattern possess richness and a so- 
phisticated interest that the woman of middle years may 
effectively carry. She may find fabrics with designs of 
subtle character more becoming than those of solid color, 
though the latter are almost always more pleasing than 
designs of striking character. Beads, flowers, or other 
decorative detail added to a patterned fabric create too 
much design in the costume and give it a confusing, elab- 
orate character that robs it of all distinction, while confer- 
ring upon the wearer a heavy, middle-aged appearance. 

Defects of figure, accumulations of flesh, unequal dis- 
tribution of flesh are common at middle age. Some wo- 
men must consider methods of reducing the apparent 
size of the hips; others, of the bust or abdomen and dia- 
phragm ; while still others have a large upper arm or round 
shoulders and a lump of flesh below the back of the neck. 
The chapters in this book discussing methods of minimiz- 
ing these defects, therefore, are of especial interest if 
studied in their relation to the problems of the woman of 
middle age. 

The Hairdress 

The hairdress frequently discloses the age of the woman 
of middle years. The woman who does her hair in care- 
less, ill-groomed, or obsolete styles, or in incongruously 
youthful modes, emphasizes her years. If, on the other 
hand, the hairdress is simple, modish, and becoming, the 
observer is less likely to think consciously of either age 



294 



The Middle Years 



Desirable Hairdresses 




Soft ringlets on the top of the head may be very becoming to 
the woman of middle years. 

A simply, slightly waved hairdress, parted at one side and 
combed up off the forehead in a slanting line, but soft about the 
face and over the ears, is becoming to most women. 

When the forehead is good, the hair may be combed back 
without a parting to give additional length to the face, if there are 
waves at the temples and over the ears. 

or coiffure, but rather of the personality of the individual. 
A frequent mistake of the middle-aged woman is that 
of having her hair cut too short, in too severe a manner, 
at the back. This mistake causes many people to disap- 
prove of short hair on a middle-aged woman. The con- 
demnation is not justified, for short hair, if not cut too 
close, may be combed to give a coiffure effect that may be 
more pleasing than long hair. If the hair is combed to 
one side with a soft swirl or sweep rather than straight 
up and down, the cut line at the neck is not so obvious 
and mannish. The front and side views of the head are 
more pleasing if the hair is dressed so that the ends are 
curled under and its outline against the ears and cheeks 
is a soft, becoming curve. The straight-cut edge, con- 
trasting, as it does, with the natural curves of the face and 



The Middle Years 



295 



Hairdresses To Be Avoided 




Knots or masses combed up at the back of the head alter the 
actual contours and give a too-large headsize. 

The shingled neckline is not only unpleasant to the eye, but it 
dates the wearer as being sufficiently old to cling to hairdresses 
that were fashionable years ago. 

When the hair is thin at the temples, the forehead has square 
lines that should be concealed rather than revealed. 

A stiff, smooth roll is less becoming than soft, loose curls, espe- 
cially if there are straight wisps of short hair at the neck. 

The simple, smooth lines of the pageboy bob are too youthful 
for the middle years. 

head, makes facial irregularities, wrinkles, and sagging 
contours more conspicuous. The straight cut with ends 
revealed frequently gives the middle-aged woman an ap- 
pearance of striving ineffectually to appear young. 

The long or growing bob, sometimes so becoming to 
the young girl with a long slender neck, is especially diffi- 
cult for the woman of middle age unless it is curled, 
combed, or pinned into the lines of a more formal coiffure. 
The casual lines of the long bob, which easily become 
so straggly as to give an impression of poor grooming, also 
shorten the neck and emphasize round shoulders or poor 
posture. However, the long-bob length is frequently so 



296 The Middle Years 

desirable, so easily handled, and so effective in permitting 
the close headdress, that many women keep their hair cut 
to this length, arranging it to give the most becoming 
lines. 

In an attempt at careful grooming, some middle-aged 
women make the mistake of having their hair dressed with 
a set pattern of tight, small waves. A loose, natural-ap- 
pearing wave, soft curling ends, following the natural con- 
tours of the head, is almost always most becoming. 

The hair tends to recede from the forehead and to thin 
out at the temples as the years advance. This gives a 
high, square line and the dreaded middle-aged appearance 
unless the hair is arranged over the forehead. Conceal- 
ment of wrinkles and the thick, lifeless skin, which often 
occurs on this part of the face, is made possible. It also 
makes the eyes appear darker and deeper and tends to 
erase the tired lines around them. The ears, which tend 
to enlarge and coarsen with age, are also best concealed 
or partially concealed by the hair. The coiffure arranged 
in simple soft lines over these features, therefore, is much 
more becoming than one in which the hair is combed 
away from the ears and forehead. The woman with long 
hair that has never been cut frequently has so much that 
it cannot be arranged otherwise than in stiff, hard, heavy 
masses, which make her appear aggressive and top heavy. 
The woman who has pride in long hair, yet who longs for 
a modish headdress and the smart, close-fitting hats it 
permits, can enjoy both by having her hair expertly 
thinned or shortened so that smaller bulk remains. She 
must learn to do her hair in soft lines without knots or 



The Middle Years 297 

bunches, which give the effect of having been added to 
the head. Hair combed up away from the back of the 
neck gives an untidy, poorly groomed appearance, for 
there are always short ends that cannot be successfully 
kept up. As hair combed up from the back usually neces- 
sitates a group of curls, a knot, or a bunch of hair, the 
natural contours of the head are destroyed and the head- 
size becomes unduly large. 

A knot placed low on the neck, centering attention upon 
a feature that is no longer young and graceful, is unbe- 
coming to the woman of middle age. It accentuates the 
thickened line of her neck and the lump of flesh that is 
frequently found at its base. A knot placed higher, just 
at the hairline, makes the neck appear much more slender 
and the shape of the head much more pleasing. 

The Hat 

There are hats that make the young girl seem middle- 
aged and that add years to the apparent age of the woman 
who has reached middle life. Yet these are the hats that 
have been designed for the matron. There are other hats 
that seem ridiculously young and naive on all but the fresh- 
est young face and figure, but which many middle-aged 
women wear in the mistaken hope that they will give 
a youthful appearance. 

The youthful, poke-shaped hat with unbroken, round 
lines is far less becoming to the woman of middle age 
than is the hat with less regularly rotund contours. The 
brim that is longer at one side, or that employs pleats or 
other manipulation of cut or draping to break the round 



298 



The Middle Years 




OLU" 



Square, heavy crowns and stiff brims are too frequently worn by 
the middle-aged woman seeking dignified, tailored hats; brimmed 
turbans, if they are not too rigid, give tailored dignity plus 
becomingness. 




Small, stiff, round hats emphasize relaxed contours; small, softly 
draped turbans are more easily worn. 

The hat with the too-small crown sets up too high on the head 
and makes the wearer appear awkward; a balanced crown and 
brim, appearing to belong on the head, gives grace to the wearer. 



The Middle Years 



299 



lines, is less likely to emphasize facial defects. An unbe- 
coming hat may frequently be made becoming by cutting 
the brim (if of felt), or by folding it into less regular 
lines. 

The typical matron's hat is heavy, awkward, and un- 
becoming largely because its crown has little or no rela- 
tion to the shape of the head. In many hats of this type 
the crown is up above the head so far that it destroys the 
balance of the entire figure. The crowns are frequently 




The large, heavy crowned, sport hat is a frequent mistake of 
the middle-aged woman; a more closely fitting crown, softly 
shaped, is more flattering. 

square rather than rounded. A hat made with a crown 
that follows the contours of the head, fitting closely so that 
it becomes an integral part of the figure, is much more 
becoming and makes both face and figure appear to better 
advantage. 

When the head size is large enough to make the crown 
appear large, as is often the case when a woman has long 
hair, the apparent proportions may be improved if the 
surface of the crown is broken by tucks or seamings. Even 



300 The Middle Years 



a fold or a crease put in with expert fingers may serve to 
increase the becomingness of a hat with a plain crown. 
The middle-aged woman frequently makes the mistake 
of buying a hat in a too-small head size and wearing it 
high on her head rather than pulled down over the fore- 
head, the ears, and the back of the head. Many women 
who realize that their hats are not smart or becoming do 
not know that the fault lies with the manner in which 
the hat is worn. 

Another error sometimes made by the woman of mid- 
dle age is that of selecting an elaborate, heavily trimmed 
hat, one that is a decorative addition to the costume rather 
than a part of it. Hats that are intricately cut and man- 
ipulated in an unusual and interesting manner, yet simple 
in effect, are more satisfactory. 

The hat with a brim shading the eyes, concealing tired 
lines around them and giving a background to the face, 
which makes the features seem smaller and any irregu- 
larities less evident, is more becoming than either the 
brimless hat or the hat with a brim that turns abruptly 
away from the face. 

A brim with a slanting, irregular line, higher at one 
side than at the other, is preferable to one that droops 
at both sides. Drooping brims emphasize the drooping, 
sagging lines in the middle-aged face. 



CHAPTER XXX 



J-ke d^lJie'tlu l/l/c 



M 



antan 



! ost of us know at least one woman who has grown 
old so gracefully that she is affectionately termed a 
"dear old lady." Such women, who have had the grace 
and wisdom to acknowledge and thus minimize the rav- 
ages of time and to accent their remaining points of 
beauty, serve to indicate solutions for the costuming prob- 
lems of women of declining years. 

Hairdress and Make-Up 

The older woman can remove years from her apparent 
age and add vitality and interest to her personality by 
doing her hair in a becoming manner and by wearing care- 
fully selected and meticulously applied make-up. 

Obvious make-up on an old woman is at once ridiculous 
and pathetic, but faint touches of rouge of soft, not vivid, 
red (usually red that is faintly red- violet) give an appear- 
ance of vigor and vitality. If color is used on the lips, 
it should be a soft, delicate salve or cream rouge that may 
be rubbed in to give a faint, shaded coloring. A defi- 
nite outline on lips that have lost the firm contours of 
youth emphasizes the age of the wearer. A rather dark, 
natural, or flesh powder is usually best, as the skin of the 
older woman, in most instances, has darkened with age. 

301 



302 The Elderly Woman 

Eye make-up is almost always a mistake for the older 
woman. An oil or petroleum jelly may be used to darken 
gray eyelashes and brows slightly. 

The forehead, which usually grows higher as well as 
more wrinkled with advancing years, should be at least 
partially concealed by the hair. The ears also appear 
very large in proportion to the face. Few, if any, older 
women have lovely ears, yet the majority of older women, 
following the hairdress of their youth, comb the hair off 
the ears as well as off the forehead, revealing these un- 
pleasing features. 

The hairdress, according to all rules of good structural 
design as well as the edicts of the present mode, should 
follow the contours of the head. The older woman too 
frequently advertises her advanced age by disregarding this 
principle. 

One still sees older women who wear their hair drawn 
back from the forehead and ears in a coil that can be called 
only a knob placed directly on top of their heads. This 
hairdress appears on many older women of evident wealth 
who buy modish apparel in Fifth Avenue shops. Other 
older women wear aggressive bunches of hair at the back 
of their heads, usually too high up to permit hats to fit 
smoothly, and greatly altering the contours of the head. 
Flat, loose coils would be much more youthful and would 
give softer, more flattering lines. 

A few older women, with alert, piquant faces, may suc- 
cessfully wear skillfully cut hair, but straight, harsh lines 
and severe, boyish cuts should always be avoided. Short 
hair should be combed to give the appearance of a soft 



The Elderly Woman 



303 




The old-fashioned topknot betrays age; simple, softly waved 
hair is ageless. 





Kinky or fussy hair seems to repeat the wrinkles and crepy 
skin; soft, loose waves are flattering. 

The center parting reveals every irregularity of facial contour; a 
parting at one side is more easily worn. 

coiffure following the outlines of the head. Occasion- 
ally, an older woman looks well with her hair in soft ring- 
lets covering the entire head. Most older women, how- 
ever, do well to avoid short hair, for unless the hair is 
naturally wavy or very scrupulously cared for, it is likely 
to become straight and stringy and to hang in wisps that 
make the older woman seem aged and forlorn. 

The present generation has learned the flattering effect 
of soft waves so large and simple that they give a natural 
effect. The older woman should adopt these large, soft 
waves and avoid the crinkled, fuzzy hair which usually 
accompanied artificial curls in the days of her youth. 



304 The Elderly Woman 

Softly waved hair is usually much more becoming than 
straight hair, especially as it aids in making thin hair 
appear thicker. 

The older woman will usually find that her hair may 
be most becomingly arranged if it is parted at the side, 
rather far to one side if the face is long and narrow, rather 
high on the side if it tends to be broad. A parting dir- 
ectly in the middle may be quaint and distinctive on the 
older woman who possesses very fine and regular features. 

Hats 

A few older women still cling to the old-fashioned "old 
lady's" bonnet, which, in former days, was considered the 
only correct head covering for the older woman. To 
some fragile, delicate "old ladies," it is decidedly becom- 
ing; it gives them a charming, quaint air, for the lines of 
the bonnet with the strings and bow under the chin are 
softening and becoming. Larger or more vigorous older 
women may, however, be made to appear ridiculous. 

The traditional old lady's hat, which has largely sup- 
planted the bonnet, is less becoming than the bonnet. It 
is neither quaint nor modish. It assumes stiff lines, is 
usually placed too high on the head, and appears an addi- 
tion to the silhouette rather than a part of it. Yet the 
average older woman replaces one such unbecoming and 
unmodish hat with one equally uninteresting. 

The older woman frequently makes the mistake of 
wearing her hat too high on her head, a style reminiscent 
of the days when hats were perched on bandeaux. When 
fitted with a correct head size, the older woman often 



The Elderly Woman 



305 




Small, narrow brims and rigid crowns are too severe; wide brims 
cast flattering shadows. 





Small hats may appear like old-ladies' bonnets when they are 
perched high on the head; a small turban of soft lines, partially 
covering the forehead, may be flattering. 

Jaunty, youthful shapes contrast with the aged face; dignified 
and irregular lines are suitable and becoming. 



306 The Elderly Woman 

wears her hat far back from the forehead, revealing lines 
in the forehead and about the eyes. A hat worn low on 
the head, covering the forehead and the ears and shading 
the eyes, is becoming to the older woman. For this rea- 
son she may always wear her hats slightly lower than the 
mode dictates, thus attaining a maximum of conceal- 
ment without appearing queer. 

The small, close-fitting turban, failing to shadow the 
face or to give it background, reveals sunken cheeks and 
lined, wrinkled skins. Difficult as it is for even the 
younger woman, unless she has perfect features, many 
older women persist in wearing this style, which, par- 
ticularly in stiff, severe textures and lines, gives little 
chance for charm in the older woman's appearance. 

A small hat, but not too small to extend slightly be- 
yond the widest part of the face, may be becoming to the 
older woman. A slight brim that shades the eyes and 
soft folds rather than severe, stiff lines and textures aid in 
obtaining the appearance of graceful, attractive old age. 

The older woman who wears an exaggeratedly large 
hat with wide, drooping brim is too obviously trying to 
cling to youthful styles — the reverse of growing old grace- 
fully. She attracts undue attention to her aged skin and 
the drooping contours of her face. 

If the too-large hat is bulky and overtrimmed, it fur- 
ther submerges the wearer. As large hats were more 
elaborately trimmed in her youth, the older woman who 
chooses a large hat frequently makes the mistake of select- 
ing one that is virtually a flower garden or bedecked with 



The Elderly Woman 307 

many bows, rather than the smart simplicity considered 
good style today. 

Round, youthful shapes appear at variance with aged 
faces. Jaunty, sport types of hats for women who are 
obviously long past the age that engages in sports, or of a 
generation that never indulged in them, are so unsuitable 
as to be almost ludicrous. 

A moderately large brim may gracefully shadow the 
face and conceal the lines and aged texture of the skin. 
Lines that are neither too rounded and too curved nor 
too severely rigid and straight are most pleasing on the 
older woman. They give an appearance of simple dignity 
that makes the older woman appear at her best. It is 
possible every season to select smart hats that are becoming 
to the older woman, hats of simplicity and dignity. 

The woman who has grown old gracefully, who neither 
denies nor emphasizes her years, usually selects with con- 
sideration of its color, texture, and lines, a smart, modish 
hat, one that makes her figure and her features appear to 
the best advantage. She allows neither the years nor the 
fashions to dictate to her. 

Necklines 

How frequently the older woman appears at her best 
when wearing a coat! How frequently many years seem 
to be added to her age when she removes it! The rea- 
son is usually the soft, flattering fur collar that covers the 
wrinkled and discolored skin of the neck and provides a 
softening frame for the face. An important consideration 



308 



The Elderly Woman 




%8&L< 



Stiff, harsh furs make 
less flattering coat col- 
lars than those of long, 
soft-haired furs covering 
neck and tip of chin. 



A draped fabric collar 
fastening high above the 
throat is more becoming 
than the tuxedo collar 
open at the neck. 





The collarless neckline 
is extremely unbecom- 
ing; a soft scarf added 
conceals the neck. 



The Elderly Woman 



309 



A low evening decolle- 
tage reveals age; an 
evening jacket of soft 
texture is flattering. 





The tight band or "dog 
collar" worn by many 
women frequently cen- 
ters attention on the 
throat; a scarf of soft 
fabric is much more 
flattering. 



A wide, round neckline 
reveals the oldest con- 
tours of the throat; a 
collar that may be ar- 
ranged high at the sides 
is flattering. 




310 The Elderly Woman 

in selecting becoming costumes for the older woman is 
that of obtaining necklines wth softening outlines similar 
to those produced by the fur collar. 

Long-haired furs of soft, fluffy character are most be- 
coming to the older woman, as they seem to fill in hollows 
of the neck and face and veil wrinkled, crepy skin. The 
coat collar that is swathed high about the neck covers the 
tip of the chin and hides its sagging lines as well as the 
wrinkled neck. A model that comes high at the back 
of the neck, fitting close at the sides, is more becoming 
than styles that are more open. 

The scarf coat collar may be arranged so that it covers 
the throat. When it is made of a supple, pliable fabric 
that readily assumes soft folds, it may be as pleasing as the 
long-haired fur collar. The scarf or stole collar of stiff, 
bulky fabric or flat, sleek fur creates stiffer, less gracious 
lines. 

The scarf collar or a draped scarf neckline is particu- 
larly desirable on dresses as, more than any other style, 
it hides the neck, at the same time giving soft, casual 
lines that do not call attention to the features they are 
intended to conceal. 

Most elderly women should have a scarf to complement 
each costume. Many dresses that at first seem unbecom- 
ing to the older woman will prove actively becoming when 
a suitable scarf is used. With the evening dress a scarf 
of net tulle, of chiffon, or other diaphanous tissue will 
usually prove successful. Chiffon, georgette, crepe de 
Chine, and other soft silks are pleasing with afternoon 



The Elderly Woman 311 

dresses, while flat crepe, radium, and other soft but firm 
silks combine well with more tailored daytime dresses. 
The older woman should avoid bold and striking designs, 
particularly those of pronounced, sport character. The 
scarf offers a splendid opportunity to place softening, be- 
coming colors near the face. 

The little formal jackets made in soft casual styles, of 
rich materials, are a most useful feature of the present 
mode, one that is particularly becoming to the older wo- 
man who finds the low decolletage and sleeveless charac- 
ter of evening gowns unbecoming. Velvets, double chif- 
fon, and other soft fabrics are more becoming than crisp 
or stiff silks, glittering sequins or paillettes, or hard metal- 
lic cloths. Those that fit high at the back and the sides 
of the neck are more pleasing than those that are cut low 
and wide at the neckline. 

Dress necklines, if they are to be worn without a scarf, 
are most pleasing when they fit close at the sides and back. 
A small collar, fitting high at the back and sides, may 
end in a narrow, slender V at the front. The lines should 
be in accordance with the accepted mode, but modified 
so that they conceal the neck as much as possible. 

The high, tight collar, either attached to the dress or 
worn as an accessory to a dress with another neckline, is 
in most instances extremely unbecoming to the older 
woman, as, instead of supplying a softening frame for the 
face, it reveals it relentlessly. The tight collar pushes up 
the loose folds of skin of the neck and chin and makes 
the chin line much poorer than it actually is. Tight rib- 



312 



The Elderly Woman 



bon bands or "dog collars" do not add to the attractive- 
ness of most older women, proclaiming, as they do, that 
they are devices used to hide wrinkled necks, yet at the 
same time attracting attention to the neck that is only 
partially concealed. 

Strings of beads, chains, and other necklaces worn on 
wrinkled, discolored necks attract attention to the aging 
skin. As it is impossible to wear a sufficient number of 
ornaments to cover the wrinkled skin (though some worn- 





Beads and necklaces are more likely to attract attention to the 
neck than to conceal wrinkles; a pendant having strongest interest 
over the fabric of the dress rather than over the skin is more 
flattering. 

en literally attempt to do this), it is best to avoid them 
entirely after the neck becomes badly aged. 

Fabric and Color 

Soft, supple fabrics and dull textures are most becoming 
near the face and hence should be chosen by the woman 
whose skin is aged. Velvet, which is both soft and lus- 
trous, is much more becoming than satin, which has a 
hard, shiny finish. Shiny-surfaced fabrics reflect light 



The Elderly Woman 313 

on the face, in this way emphasizing hollows, wrinkles, 
and discolorations of the skin. 

When one remarks an older woman who appears years 
younger than her actual age, the colors she wears are 
usually instrumental in creating this youthful effect. She 
appears younger in contrast to other women of her age 
who wear black. A charming woman of seventy, who 
is usually believed to be about fifty years old, wears soft 
rose color almost exclusive of any other color. Even her 
coats and hats are of soft dull rose, of the shades known 
as bois de rose or ashes of roses. Occasionally she chooses 
an extremely rosy beige, not a yellow or a gray beige. 

Color, too much or too vivid color, or its absence in 
drab, neutral tones, has even more influence on the ap- 
pearance of older women than upon other persons. The 
subdued coloring, the faded and usually yellowed skin, 
hair that has turned gray or white, and eyes that have 
become less bright and frequently lighter with the years, 
are easily submerged by too-forceful, vivid colors. These 
vivid colors will likewise accentuate discolorations and 
blemishes in the skin. On the other hand, dull blacks 
tend to absorb color from surrounding surfaces, making 
the wearer paler and more colorless. Dull, neutral beiges 
and grays may be so similar to both the skin and the hair 
of the wearer that they make her appear monotonous and 
uninteresting. As too-vivid colors overpower the color- 
ing of the older woman and too-neutral colors lessen her 
own coloring, the logical solution is that of not wearing 
definite colors, but those that have been partially softened 
or grayed; in fact, those colors about halfway between 



314 The Elderly Woman 

neutral and vivid intensities. When black or neutrals are 
worn, color or white should be used with them, counter- 
acting the unbecoming effect. 

Light colors are most becoming near the face. Grayed, 
somewhat neutralized colors (but not dead or totally 
neutral gray) are more becoming than intense colors, 
which may reflect unpleasing color on the face or make 
it appear more faded by contrast. Off-whites and light, 
softened, warm colors are usually preferable to dead white. 
They are frequently the most pleasing colors to use in 
scarfs or collars, serving as a transition between the color 
of the dress and that of the face. Light, grayed violets, 
blues, and greens are pleasing on many older women, but 
frequently more becoming when an off-white is used next 
to the face. 

The older woman frequently finds that she may wear 
colors with her gray hair that were definitely unbecoming 
in her youth. Chapter XI gives more specific informa- 
tion relative to the problems of women with white and 
gray hair. 

The Lines of the Mode 

Women of advanced years too frequently make the mis- 
take of dressing in utter disregard of the mode. This 
wearing of styles of days gone by serves to emphasize and 
exaggerate age. The "old-fashioned" costumes, so differ- 
ent from the styles our eyes are accustomed to see, seem 
awkward and graceless. 

While definitely old-fashioned apparel should be 
avoided, a quaint note is frequently pleasing on an older 



The Elderly Woman 315 

woman, giving an appearance of having grown old grace- 
fully, of having kept pace with the years, yet of retaining 
some of the demure charm of other days. For this rea- 
son the slender old lady of alert carriage frequently finds 
modern adaptations of period styles extremely becom- 
ing. Softer materials than the stiff taffeta the younger 
girl affects when she chooses these quaint designs are more 
becoming to age. Lace and chiffon or other soft silks 
may be given some of the feeling of bouffant frocks with- 
out being harsh in texture or outline. The bodices of these 
gowns should not be so tight fitting as they were in the 
older woman's youth. The tight-fitting bodice makes 
the garment appear old-fashioned rather than quaint and 
reveals the defects of figure and posture that the older 
woman is almost certain to possess. 

Many older women still cling to old-fashioned, rigid 
corsets, which give them a too-definite waistline and a 
stiff, graceless figure. In more natural corsetry they may 
be much more becomingly costumed. Whether or not 
the corsetry is rigid, the dress should not fit closely, with 
a tight, natural waistline belt — a style that usually gives 
the figure awkward proportions. 

The loose, shapeless dress, which apparently does not 
touch the figure at any structural point and hangs in 
loose, baggy lines from neck to hem, makes the old woman 
look characterless and uninteresting. If, as is frequently 
the case, the too-loose dress is combined with the too-long 
skirt, the wearer is almost entirely submerged under the 
unshapely bulk of her costume. 

Garments that definitely fit the wearer, not too closely 



316 The Elderly Woman 

or too loosely, but which hang in soft, flowing lines re- 
lated to the structure of the figure, give the older woman 
at once grace and dignity. While a tight bodice and belt 
should be avoided, garments that fit the shoulders and 
hips rather closely, not in a strained, but in a close line, 
are becoming. A girdle that is swathed in soft lines at the 
hips may give shape to a formless, too-loose dress and 
make the wearer appear more youthfully alert. 

The older woman who selects daring lines that greatly 
change her silhouette, modes such as bustle drapes or flar- 
ing peplums, accents her age, since she no longer has the 
vivacity necessary to carry them successfully. Too elab- 
orate models also submerge the wearer and betray that 
she has belonged to a generation that considered elabora- 
tion and profuse decoration desirable. 

Much of the older woman's tendency to overdress, to 
wear too-elaborate detail, is due to a misunderstanding of 
the fact that the older woman of leisure may wear richer 
materials than were suitable to her youth. The very ele- 
gance of these materials, however, calls for simplicity of 
design, for restrained, but not severe lines. Soft, rich 
silks, supple, clinging velvets, brocades, and patterned 
materials of indefinite design and inconspicuous pattern 
may give true dignity to the older woman, may give her 
an appearance of sophistication, of having lived fully and 
grown old gracefully. Soft, flowing lines, soft drapes, 
and self -trimming are more pleasing on the older woman 
than either stiff severity, dashing lines, or profusion of 
detail. 



The Elderly Woman 317 

Shoes 

The woman of advanced years too frequently betrays 
her age by wearing footwear reminiscent of the days of 
her youth, by assuming modes neither becoming nor smart. 

The unduly small foot in a too-small shoe is attempted 
only by the older woman. In her youth, a tiny shoe peep- 
ing from beneath long skirts was considered an ideal of 
feminine beauty. Too-small shoes increase the stiff, un- 
certain gait that so often results from added years. Wrin- 
kles and other signs of age may also directly result from 
painful footwear. If the ankles have thickened with the 
years, the too-small shoe will make this defect more appar- 
ent. If the body has become heavy, the seemingly in- 
adequate foundation makes it appear even larger and 
more ungainly by contrast. 

Exaggeratedly high, slender heels tend to make walking 
difficult for a woman of any age. When the older 
woman, whose joints are stiffer and whose gait is some- 
what uncertain, wears extremely high heels with a nar- 
row, inadequate base, she is likely to appear weak and 
tottering. Her entire figure is thrown out of balance and 
her posture is made stooped and awkward. 

The heel of moderate height, neither extremely low, as 
in sports and children's shoes, nor extremely high, is most 
graceful on the older woman. The heel should be some- 
what curved — not straight, flat, and shapeless, nor curved 
so much that it has almost no base — for the older woman 
needs a foundation that is both firm and graceful. 



CHAPTER XXXI 

cuius. idJeir 

/smartly dressed, attractive businesswoman nearing 
<zz4* forty was recently heard to remark, "It took me 
twenty years to learn to dress so that I am reasonably good 
looking. If I had only known when I was eighteen or 
twenty what I know now about clothes, my life would 
have been very different. No one ever thought I was a 
pretty girl, but when I look at my snapshots of school 
days, I learn that I was very badly dressed. 

"Flappers were in fashion then, and I wore my hair in 
wild disorder — wind-blown bobs, I remember, they were 
called. My clothes were designed to be cute — on other 
girls, but they made me look only awkward. Yet, as I 
remember it, I was never bad looking. I had large eyes, 
a clear skin, and dark-brown hair with a slight, natural 
wave. My weight was normal, and my height average 
or very slightly less. 

"My figure has not improved with the years — quite the 
contrary — yet I seem to have a much better figure now 
than I had twenty years ago, because I have learned what 
clothes are becoming to me. I make the most of my 

318 



"She Wears Her Clothes Well" 319 

natural wave now, though, of course, if I didn't have a 
natural wave I would get a good permanent or wear my 
hair straight and simple. 

"Since my complexion is still good I use little make-up 
other than lipstick, carefully applied, and a slight touch 
of mascara to emphasize my eyes, which are still my best 
feature. As a result I am considered a good-looking 
woman, and I look young enough so that my age is never 
considered a detriment by my employers; yet I have 
known other women who, before they reached forty, found 
that they looked too old to compete with the younger 
women in their line of work. 

"But," she concluded, "if I'd only known twenty years 
ago what I know now about clothes, I'd have had much 
more fun as a young girl and probably much more attrac- 
tive chances at matrimony; and maybe I would not be an 
efficient businesswoman thinking about competing with 
the younger generation of businesswomen." 

It is true that a great many women have, by the time 
they have passed their first youth, learned by the trial-and- 
error method what to wear and what not to wear. There 
are also a great many women whose choice of apparel 
seems to become worse year after year. Very often those 
of the latter group were pretty, slender girls who looked 
well in anything. 

Sometimes these women who dress less attractively each 
year make the mistake of continuing to wear clothes that 
look well in the shop window or on the woman with good 
coloring and slender figure. Other women realize that 
their apparel does not enhance their appearance, but they 



3 2o "She Wears Her Clothes Well" 

are uncertain of just how to obtain clothes that really flat- 
ter them. Some of them feel rather helplessly that their 
only beauty is about gone and that nothing can make them 
look as they wish to look. Others feel that it takes un- 
limited time and money to achieve the attractive appear- 
ance for which they long. 

Granted it takes thought and some time to plan becom- 
ing costumes, and granted also that money is always help- 
ful, many women could look far better than they do and 
spend much less money if every item of apparel was pur- 
chased in accordance with a carefully conceived plan. 

The first thing a woman should do in making her cos- 
tume plan is analyze her face and figure, basing the 
analysis on the information in this book. She will then 
know, in a general way, which lines and colors are most 
likely to be becoming. 

Her own clothes' closet will give her definite and con- 
crete help in avoiding future mistakes and in making only 
wise selections in the future. Her clothes may be divided 
into three groups — those that she really enjoys wearing; 
those that are "all right," or almost "all right"; and those 
that she thoroughly detests. 

Starting with the last and hated group, each costume 
should be studied before a mirror. They should be ex- 
amined carefully from the front view, profile view, and 
the rear reflection. What makes them unbecoming? Is 
it because the fullness comes at just the wrong place in the 
blouse and so makes the figure look too "busty"? Is it 
because there is too much material or trimming on the 



"She Wears Her Clothes Well" 321 

sleeves that the shoulders seem too broad? Do these 
sleeves add bulk at the waist or hipline? Perhaps the 
lines of the dress are basically good, but the dress is too 
tight, in which case the owner may learn not only that 
she must cease buying dresses that are too small for her, 
but also that a few weeks of careful dieting might make 
even her detested dresses becoming. 

Next, the unexciting, but not definitely unbecoming 
clothes should be tried on. What do they lack? Very 
frequently they need only an accent which will give them 
distinction and which will call attention to the wearer's 
best features. Well-chosen accessories that add accents of 
becoming colors may redeem these borderline clothes. 
Almost always, their general cut and design is such that 
the wearer's worst features are hidden or minimized, 
otherwise these garments would not have been placed in 
the middle or "all right" class. 

When the clothes that are hated and those to which the 
owner is indifferent have been critically studied, it should 
be a joy to analyze the clothes that have proved becoming 
and which she likes to wear. But even this group must 
be analyzed ruthlessly. Perhaps she enjoys wearing a cer- 
tain coat because it has pockets into which she can put 
her hands. Possibly after she sees herself walking toward 
a mirror with her hands in her pockets she will sew up 
the pockets and thereby avoid the slouched, hunched-over 
appearance which walking with the hands in the pockets 
gives to most women. Then, too, she may enjoy wearing 
a dress because she thinks the color is flattering or because 



322 "She Wears Her Clothes Well" 

the color is a favorite; yet the actual dress itself may be 
unbecoming either because of its lines, or because the color- 
ing is not actually flattering. 

As a general rule, however, the clothes one enjoys wear- 
ing, especially if one enjoys wearing them after they cease 
to be new, are becoming. Comments of friends and fam- 
ily also give a clue to true becomingness. The majority 
of the clothes one enjoys wearing are garments that have 
won renewed admiration even after repeated wearings. 
From these clothes one can learn a great deal. 

Each individual's becoming clothes probably have cer- 
tain traits in common. If her face is broad, the individual 
will probably find that all of her becoming clothes have 
F-necklines. If her face is too thin she is likely to find 
that her becoming clothes all have softly rounded neck- 
lines. If the hips are large, one will doubtless find that 
none of the becoming clothes are tightly belted or swathed 
at the hips. Probably many features will confirm the in- 
formation in this book; some may seem contradictory. 
But if, after careful study, one finds lines and devices be- 
coming or unbecoming, they should be adopted whether 
or not the book recommends them. 

As seasons change and new fashions come into being, 
one should look for similar lines or textures or colors in 
the new styles. Always consider possible changes in face 
and figure. If one is gaining weight or losing weight, or 
if the face is tired and haggard today and fresh and rested 
tomorrow, one may be able to wear many styles in the 
future which are not becoming today, or vice versa. If 
among your favored garments you have some clothes that 



"She Wears Her Clothes Well" 323 

you have been wearing for several years, not because of 
necessity, but because you loved them, be sure that they 
are still becoming and not simply profiting by their past 
becomingness. 

If you have a dress or a hat or a coat that you have found 
becoming in the past, try to determine whether it is the 
line, the texture, or the color which makes it flattering. 
If you think it is the line, try to create a similar line in 
other colors, watching carefully to see if it really is be- 
coming in other colors. A hat that is extremely flattering 
in blue or green or black might be very unbecoming in 
bright red or in brown. Likewise, a coat that is success- 
ful in black might be a mistake in beige or in brown. 

If you have a good dressmaker or are one yourself, it 
.may be very wise to have your most becoming dresses 
copied exactly or copied with slight modifications which 
bring them up to date in fashion. It may also be wise to 
use the same pattern for several dresses if the cut and 
lines of the first one have been unusually successful. 

In doing this do not fail to consider the effect of texture 
on the lines of the dress. You are almost sure to be dis- 
appointed if you have copied, in heavy or stiff fabric, lines 
that were perfect in a soft, non-bulky fabric. 

The purpose of this book is to train the critical eye in 
the intelligent choosing of wearing apparel. Having 
chosen becoming and suitable garments, one must, in 
order to wear them successfully, adjust them so carefully 
that one does not remain conscious of them. It is the 
unself-consciousness born of self-confidence that gives true 
poise and beauty. 



324 "She Wears Her Clothes Well" 

The more consideration one gives to clothes before 
wearing them and while putting them on, the less thought 
need be given them while they are being worn. Clothes 
should be fitted so that they will not restrict movements 
of the wearer, yet will fit the body closely enough to re- 
main in place and to reveal its most graceful contours. 
While ideally one should stand erect and thus make 
figure and clothes appear to the best advantage, one should 
not stand erect while being fitted unless very sure to do 
so while the clothes are being worn. If an erect body, 
with head up and shoulders back in a natural position, 
trunk elongated and spine straight, has not become habi- 
tual through exercise, the conscious effort to hold the 
body in this position in order to make the clothing fit will 
lead only to awkwardness and self-consciousness. 

Clothing should be worn pulled up at the shoulders so 
that it fits well about the neck and so that the sleeve is of 
the proper length. A well-fitting coat may lose its lines 
unless it is carefully put on, but it is not a well-fitting coat 
unless it retains these lines without effort to the wearer 
after it has once been carefully adjusted. The hands 
should be put into the sleeves in such a manner that the 
seams are straight and untwisted and the cuff in the po- 
sition most becoming to the hand. Underarm seams 
should fall straight, not twist either forward or back- 
ward. In a well-fitted, carefully adjusted dress, they 
should remain in this position during normal movements. 

Readjustments of clothing should be avoided, unless 
necessitated by wind or body movement. Many a woman 
destroys the effectiveness of her clothes as well as her 
appearance of poise by constant "fussing" with her ap- 



"She Wears Her Clothes Well" 325 

parel. She needlessly changes the angle at which her 
hat is worn, the amount of hair that is showing, the color 
in her cheeks, or various lines in her costume. If this is 
accomplished without the aid of a mirror or with a small 
mirror that shows only a portion of the face and figure, the 
result is likely to be less pleasing than the original effect. 

One can best forget one's clothes while wearing them 
if each costume has been studied carefully before it is 
worn. A brief but careful analysis before a mirror will 
reveal disarrangements that are likely to occur when the 
figure is in motion and will indicate the correct position. 
It is particularly necessary to learn to put on hats and 
coats guided by a sense of "feel," since one must often 
adjust them in theaters or elsewhere where mirrors are 
not available or cannot be inconspicuously employed. 

The figure should be studied in motion. As we all 
appear at our best before a mirror, since we instinctively 
stand straighter and move more gracefully, the figure 
should be studied in natural motion. Snapshots taken 
when the individual is unaware will do much to reveal 
faults of carriage and proportion. Home movies, where 
available, might also be used for the same analysis. A 
triple mirror, or mirrors arranged on opposite walls so 
that they show front and back views, are especially help- 
ful. A critical eye is needed only for analysis of other 
persons. Few persons in this age are willing to undergo 
the discipline required to achieve good carriage. Yet 
many of us could profitably practice walking along a 
straight line without bending the knees, perhaps even 
carrying a book balanced on the head, until our muscles 
acquire the feeling of graceful rhythmic movement. 



326 "She Wears Her Clothes Well" 

The person with a critical eye has become conscious 
of defects. This book is largely concerned with such de- 
fects as can be hidden in the course of emphasizing good 
points. The trained critic will inevitably become sen- 
sitive to defects owing to carelessness and to lines and 
blemishes that can be corrected when once their existence 
is recognized. 

A person who has been using the same rouge daily 
does not observe that it is not the actual hue of the natural 
color. Likewise she may tend to put on more rouge day 
by day, the gradual increase in color blinding her to the 
fact that too much coloring carelessly applied does not 
appear either attractive or natural to others. Hair and 
complexion can often be markedly improved by care. 
Overweight, likewise, can be overcome by one who recog- 
nizes it to a degree that reconciles her to consistent ab- 
stinence. Garments themselves may be meticulously 
cared for. All such measures add to the self-confidence 
at the basis of wearing one's clothes well. 

The purpose of this book is to train the critical eye. But, 
after all, it is the eye, not the book, that is the final judge 
of becomingness and suitability. It is well to scrutinize 
carefully any color or design that experience indicates is 
not pleasing for your figure, coloring, and personality. 
But please do not discard anything that your eye tells 
you is good in favor of something that the book says 
ought to be good. And please do not judge others as un- 
skillful dressers merely because they affect costumes the 
book seems to condemn for them. 

Have confidence in your own eye ! 



<Z^H,Jie% 



cz^hJLck 



Abdomen : 

bows over, 177-178 
buckles over, 177-178 
decorative details over, 

176-178 
knots over, 177-178 
modifying enlarged, 168- 

183 

Accessories : 

for girl, 2.69-2.70 

for petite women, 2.40-2.41 
Acid: 

rinse, 68 

tartaric, 68 
Age: 

adaptation to, 104-111, 
157-32.2. 

apparel for advanced, 301- 

emphasis on clothes, 170- 

2-79 
Albums, family, 6 

Analogous colors, 70, 11 5-1 16 

Analysis : 

face, 32.0 

figure, 130-133, 32.0 

Angularity, modification of, 

2.0, 44-45, 2.14-2.11 

Ankles, beautifying, 133, 105- 

2.06 



Apparel : 

adjustment, 2.61 

age emphasis in, 2.70-2.79 

baby, 157-2.59 

beige, 111-113 

black, 12.3 

bluish gray, 12.1 

brown, 111-113 

care of, 316 

children's, 2.57-2.66 

color, 1 1 8-12.3, 2.65-2.66 

comfort in, 2.68-2.69 

dark green, 12.3 

dignity in, 2.52.-2.53 

ensemble, 2.61 

for elderly women, 301-317 

for energetic women, 187- 

2.89 
for feminine personality, 

2.86-2.87 
for middle age, 2.90-300 
gray, 111- 12.3 
hygiene requirements of, 

2.61-2.65 
maternity, 178-182. 
navy blue, 110-111 
pinkish gray, 112. 
plain surface, 179 
readjustments of, 314-315 
simplicity of, 141, 151-153, 

191-193 



329 



330 



Ind 



ex 



Apparel (Cont.'): 


Belt (Cont.'): 


smartness of, 318-32.6 


garter, 163 


space divisions, 2.3 6—2.3 8 


placement of, 136-137 


wine color, 12.3 


wide, 138 


young girls', 167-181 


Belt lines: 


Arches, fallen, 133 


concealing diaphragm, 174- 


Arms: 


176 


bare, 140 


curved, 181 


capes concealing, 101-2.01 


Bisymmetric hat trimming, 38 


concealing large upper, 199- 


Black: 


104 


apparel, 113 


loose bodice for, 100-101 


coat, 110 


scarfs concealing, 101-101 


dresses, 11 9- 110, 113 


shape of, 131-131 


hats, 1 19-110 


Armscye, placing, 191-100 


shoes, 1 19-110 


Ascot tie, 31 


Blemishes, correcting, 316 


Asymmetric hat trimming, 


Blonde: 


37-40 


drab, 81-85 


Awkwardness, eliminating 


neutral, 81-85 


child's, 165-166 


pale, 81-85 


T% 


vivid, 83-86 


B 


Blouse: 


Baby clothes, 157-159 


and shirt contrast, 137-138 


Back, masses at, 193-194 


large, loose, 187 


Bangs on forehead, 7 


length of, 134, 136-137 


Bare arms, 140 


light-colored, 189-190 


Beads : 


peasant, 191 


accentuating curves by, 171 


Blue eyes, colors for, 99-103 


heavy, 193, 140 


Bluing, 68 


shape of, 17-10, 61 


Bluish-gray apparel, 111 


Beauty : 


Bob, pageboy, 11 


facial, 3-53 


Bobbed hair, 7 


parlors, 6 


Bodice : 


Beige : 


and skirt joining, 165-167 


apparel, 111-113 


cut of, 171-174 


coat, 111 


full, 163-164 


dresses, 113 


loose, 100-101 


Belt: 


Body, head proportion to, 


color of, 138 


130-131 



Index 



33i 



Bolero jacket, 144 
Boleros, length of, 170-172. 
Bows: 

concealing round shoulders, 

193 

heavy, 141 

over abdomen, 177-178 
Bracelets, 140 
Brassieres, uplift, 183 
Breadth, modifying, 2.2.2.-2.3 1 , 

141-150 
Bright colors, 158 
Brilliance: 

hair, 68 

of eyes, 78-79 
Brim, drooping hat, 40-41, 

45-46, 51-53 
Brimless hats, 51, 198 
Broad face, beautifying, 4-5, 

13, 19, 311 
Brooches : 

dark, 61 

facial contour and, 16-17 
Brown : 

apparel, 1 11-113 

coats, 111-111 

dresses, 113 

fabrics, 111 

fur coats, 111-111 

hats, 111-111 

minks, 111-111 

shoes, 111 
Brown eyes, colors for, 97-99, 

101-103 
Brown hair, colors for, 99-103 
Brunettes : 

colors for, 84-87, 91-94 

olive, 91-95 
Brushing hair, 5 , 68 



Buckles, over abdomen, 177- 

178 

Bulky fabrics, 1 51-151 
Business women, smartly 

dressed, 318-316 
Bust, modifying large, 183- 

190 
Button earrings, 11-11 



Calves, 133 

Campus costumes, 179-181 

Capes : 

circular, 143, 196 

collars, 143 

concealing arms, 101-101 

pointed, 143, 196 

round, 111 
Care of clothing, 168 
Carriage, good, 131-131, 168, 

114, 161-161 
Center lines, narrow, 135-137 
Center panels, 135 
Center-part, hair, 7, 11 
Character, line adaptation to, 

151-154 
Cheeks : 

color in, 58-59, 78 

hair curved over, 11, 15 
Chiffon, 103-104 
Childish-type girl, 175-176 
Children, growth of, 164 
Chin: 

double, 14, 51-52. 

forehead and, 50 

protruding, 14, 50-51 

receding, 14, 49-50 
Choker necklaces, 17-18 
Circular capes, 143, 196 



332 



Index 



Clinging fabrics, 153-154, 

2.03-2.04 
Clips, facial contour and, 16- 

Close : 

hairdress, 10-11, 13-14 

skirt, 111 
Closely fitted necklines, 188 
Clothes : 

age emphasis in, 2.70-2.79 

baby, 2.57-2.59 

beige, 111-113 

black, 12.3 

brown, 1x1-113 

care of, 316 

color of, 2.60-2.61 

comfort in, 2.68-2.69 

dark green, 113 

for energetic women, 187- 
2.89 

gray, 112.-12.3 

maternity, 178-181 

navy blue, 110-111 

outdoor, 1 19-110 

plain-surface, 179 

readjustment of, 164 

shopping, 117 

space divisions of, 136-138 

sport, 1 19-110 

warmth of, 165 

weight of, 165 

wine color, 113 
Clothing: 

adjustments, 161 

care of, 168 

children's, 157-166 

color of, 1 1 8-113, 165-166 

dignity of, 151-153 

ensemble, 161 



Clothing (Cont^)\ 

for feminine personality, 
186-187 

for middle age, 190-300 

hygienic requirements of, 
161-165 

readjustments of, 314-315 

simplicity of, 151-153 

young girls', 167-181 

young women's, 181-189 
Coats : 

beige, 111 

black, 110 

brown, 111-111 

collars, 19-35 

fur, 111-111 

lapels, 31, 33-34 

length of, 143-145, 138 

navy-blue, 110-111 

straight line, 161 
Coiffure for petite women, 

139 
Collars : 

adaption to face, 3, 14 

cape, 143 

close-fitting, 115 

coat, 19-35 

color contrast by, 111 

concealing round shoulders, 
195-196 

contrasting, 141-143 

fur, 34-35 

high, close, 14, 16, 115 

long shawl, 34-35 

open at throat, 19-30 

pointed, 17-18, 31-33, 143 

round, 15, 17, 143 

self-color, 143 

short, bulky, 34 



Index 



333 



Collars (Cont?)\ 
soft, 1 86, 1 88 
sportswear, 2.8 
square, 143 
^-shaped, 143 
Color: 

accent for neutral blonde, 

81-85 
adaptation to face, 4 
adaptation to silhouette, 

148, 156-159 
altering facial, 58-61 
analogous, 70, 11 5-1 16 
analyzing hair, 54, 77-79 
and texture contrasts, 179 
bright, 158 
changing becomingness of, 

61-62. 
combined warm and cool, 

116-118 
contrasts, 61-63, 2.05-2.08, 

112. 

contrasts for stout women, 

cool, 159 

dark, 62., 157 

dull, 158 

emphasizing cheek, 58-59 

enhancing hair, 68-69 

eyes and, 67, 70-73 

flattering, 65-66 

for brown eyes, 101-103 

for brown hair, 99-103 

for brunettes, 84-87 

for cool coloring, 81-87, 

97-103 
for drab blonde, 81-85 
for elderly women, 311-314 
for fair skin, 97-103 



Color (Cont.'): 
for girl, 168 
for intermediate type of 

coloring, 96-103 
for mixed dark and gray, 

105-106 
for olive brunette, 91-95 
for red-haired types, 89-93 
for stout women, 143 
for vivid blonde, 83-86 
for vivid brunette, 91-94 
for warm coloring, 88-95 
for yellow hair, 97-98, 101- 

103 
gray, 158 
hair and, 67-70 
harmonious combinations 

of, 1 11-113 
high value, 59 
in children's clothes, 160- 

161, 165-166 
intensity, 158 
intensity contrasts, 114 
interest, 111-115, 157-159 
light value, 61-61, 156-157 
low value, 59 
manipulation of, 3 
neutralized, 158 
of belt, 138 
of cheeks, 78 
of costume, 105 
of dress, 11 8-113, 2.05-108, 

111 
of eyes, 71-73, 78-79 
of fabrics, 114-115 
of gloves, 141 
of handbags, 140-141 
of hats, 111 
of hosiery, 105-108, 111 



334 



Index 



Color (Cont?)'. 
of lips, 78 
of lipstick, 65, 319 
of shoes, 2.05-2.08, 112. 
of sleeves, 142. 
of wardrobe, 118-113 
passive, 109 
powder matching, 55 
rating scale, 74-80 
reading, cautions in, 79-80 
related, 11 5-1 16 
skin hue and, 81 
skin pigmentation and, 54- 

66 
strong, 3 
texture influences on, 63- 

64 

unbecoming, 109 

value contrasts, 69-70, 113 

vitalization by, 104-111 

vivid, 70, 158 

warm, 70, 158-159 

widely diverse combination 
of, 118 
Colorful blonde, 83-86 
Coloring: 

analysis of individual, 74- 
80, 108-109 

cool, 81-87 

enhancing individual, 109 

hats and, 64 

intermediate type of, 96- 

103 
make-up for individual, 108 

nondescript, 3, 62. 

repetition of individual, 3 

warm, 88-95 
Combing hair, 5-15 
Comfort, dress, 168-169 



Complexion : 

care of, 15, 319, 316 

pale, 59-60 
Confidence, self, 316 
Contrasting collars, 141-143 
Contrasts : 

color, 61-63, 105-108, 111 

color and texture, 179 

hue, 113, 116-118 

shirt and blouse, 138 

value, 69-70, 113-114 
Cool coloring, colors for, 81- 

87> 97-103 
Cool colors, combined warm, 

and, 116-118, 159 
Cool eyes, colors for, 99-103 
Corsets : 

maternity, 180 

tight, 168, 183 
Costume : 

accenting eye by, 71-71 

campus, 179-181 

color of, 3, 1 1 8-113, 105, 
160-161, 165-166 

design and jewelry, 16 

earrings adapted to, 11 

enhancing personality by, 3 

jewelry, 16-14, II2 - 

of strong color, 3 

planning, 4 

quaint, 131-133 

readjustments of, 314-315 

simplicity of, 191-193 

striking design in, 3 
Crowns, hat, 41 
Cuban heel, 113 
Cuffs: 

contrasting, 141 

heavy, 140 



Index 



335 



Curls, hair, n, 13 
Curved : 

lines, 165-167 

straps, 2.09-2.10 
Curved lines: 

at waist, 186-188 

youthful effect of, 151 

D 

Dark: 

brooches, 62. 

colors, 62., 157 

earrings, 62. 

hat, 61, 64 

necklaces, 62. 

scarfs, 61 

wine color, 113 
Dark eyes, make-up for, 98 
Dark green: 

apparel, 113 

coat, 113 
Dark hair, combing, 11 
Decorations over abdomen, 

176-178 
Defects, correcting facial, 45- 

53* 74> 32-6 
Demure styles, 132.-133 

Designs : 

costumes of striking, 3 

for stout women, 143 

in fabrics, 2.2.5-2.2.9 

small, dainty, 139 
Diagonal lines, 136-137, 139, 

2 -53~ 2 -54 

Diaphragm, modifying en- 
larged, 168-183 

Dignity in straight lines, 151- 

2-53 
Discolorations, skin, 313 



Disks, 2.1-2.2. 
Drab blonde, 81-85 
Drab coloring, 3, 61 
Drapes, pointed, 139 
Dress : 

adjustments, 161 

age emphasis in, 170-179 

baby, 157-159 

beige, 113 

black, 1 19-110, 113 

brown, 1 11-113 

care of, 316 

children's, 157-166 

color of, 1 1 8-113, 105, 160- 
161, 165-166 

color uniformity in, 105- 
108, 111 

comfort in, 168-169 

dark green, 113 

dignity of, 151-153 

evening, 117 

for elderly women, 301-317 

for energetic women, 187- 
189 

for feminine personality, 
186-187 

gray, 111-113 

high-waisted, 114 

hygienic requirements of, 
161-165 

lines, 313 

loose-fold, 187-189 

maternity, 178-181 

navy-blue, 110-111 

one-piece, 168 

plain-surface, 179 

readjustment of, 164, 324- 

32-5 . 
shopping, 117 



336 



Index 



Dress (Cont.'): 

simplicity of, 2.41, 2.52.-2.53, 
192.-193 

sleeveless, 141, 2.01-2.02. 

smartness of, 318-32.6 

space divisions of, 2.36-2.38 

straight lines, 161 

textures, 32.3 

weight of, 169-170 

wine color, 113 

wrapover, 178-179 

young girls', 2.67-2.81 

young women's, 2.82.-2.89 
Dressmakers, 313 
Drooping brim hats, 198 
Dull: 

colors, 158 

textures, 149-150 
Dyes, hair, 68 

E 

Ear lobe, shape of, 13 
Earrings : 

button, xi-12. 

dark, 61 

face and, 16, 10-13 

flat, 11 

pendant, 11-13 
Ears: 

concealing, 8, 10 

revealing, 8-10, 15 
Elbows, beautifying, 131 
Elderly women: 

apparel for, 301-317 

colors for, 311-314 

color vitalization of, 104- 
iii 

fabrics for, 311-313 

fashions for, 314-316 



Elderly women (Cont.'): 
hairdress for, 301-304 
hats for, 304-307 
make-up for, 301-301 
necklines for, 307-311 
shoes for, 317 

Enamel, colored nail, 65 

Energetic women, dress for, 
187-189 

Ensemble, clothing, 161 

Evening dress, 117 

Eyebrows : 
coloring of, 68 
hair parting and, 11-11 

Eyeglasses, concealing cor- 
ners of, 51-53 

Eyelashes, coloring of, 68, 71 

Eye pencil, 71 

Eyes: 

analysis of, 54, 78-79 
brilliance of, 10, 78-79 
brown, 97-99, 101-103 
color adaptation to, 67, 70- 

73 
dark, 98 

earrings flattering to, 11 

intensifying color of, 71-73 

make-up for, 70-71 

size of, 10, 70-71 

Eye-shadow, 71 



Fabrics : 
brown, 111 

clinging, 153-154, 103-104 
color for, 114-115 
design in, 115-119 
dull, 149-150 
for elderly women, 311-313 



Index 



337 



Fabrics (Cont.y. 
for girl, 2.68-2.69 
for tall, heavy women, m~ 

2.2.9 
heavy, 151-151 
knitted, 2.69 
light weight, 2.03-104 
opaque, 2.03-2.04 
perpendicular line, 102.-103 
printed, 154-156 
shiny, 148-149, 187, 311- 

soft, 103-104 
stiff, 149-15 1 
thin, 103-104 

transparent, 151-156, 187, 
103-104 
Face: 

analysis, 310 
animation of, 11 
beauty of, 3-53 
broad, 4-5, 13, 19, 311 
brooches and, 16-17 
changing color of, 58-61 
clips and, 16-17 
collar for, 3 , 14 
color adaptation to, 4 
correcting defects of, 45-53, 

74 
dark values near, 61 

earrings and, 16, 10-13 

emphasizing, 10-11 

hairdress and, 5-15 

hat and contour of, 3, 36- 

53 
jewelry and, 16-14 

lengthening the, 11-11, 19- 

10, 16-18, 31-33 

light values near, 61-61 



Face (Cont.y. 

lines following contours of, 
41-43 

long, 5, 10-13, 15, 17-11, 
14-19 

necklaces and, 3, 16-10 

necklines and, 3, 14-35 

ornaments and, 16-13 

oval simulation, 3-5, 15, 14 

pins and, 16-17 

round, 4-5 

scarf and contours of, 3 

short, 4-5 

square, 4-5 

thin, 5, 10-13, x 5> U'^y 
14-19, 34, 311 

widening the, 7-1 1, 17-16, 
31-33, 40-41 

yellow in, 59-61 

young, 6 
Fair skin, color for, 97-103 
Fall apparel, 111 
Fallen arches, 133 
Family albums, 6 
Fashions : 

for elderly women, 314-316 

in hairdress, 6-y 

new, 311 

quaint, 131-133 
Fat, excess, 168 
Features : 

emphasis of best, 4, 96-103 

emphasized by repetition, 
46-47 

inventory of, 4 

irregular, 7, 11, 14-15, i8 j 

modifying size of, 13-14 
nondescript physical, 3 



33» 



Index 



Feet: 

beautifying, 133, 2.05 
hemline effects on, 113 
slenderizing, 2.07-2.1 1 

Feminine personality, dress 
for, 186-2.87 

Figure : 

critical analysis of, 130- 

J 33> 3 2 - 
defects of, 74 

footwear and, 2.05-2.14 

hemline effects on, 113 

improving overweight, 

245-2.47 
lengthening, 186 

motion study of, 315-316 

optical illusions affecting, 

130-147 

Fingernails, colored, 65-66 

Fingertip jackets, 2.37 

Flappers, 318 

Flesh tints, 59, 61 

Flowers, shoulder, 3, 14, 193 

Footwear: 

figure and, 2.05-2.14 

for petite women, 2.41 

for short, heavy women, 

2.49-2.50 
large women's, 2.30-2.31 
light, in 
striking, 3 

Forceful women, 187-189 

Forehead : 
bangs on, 7 
hair combed off, 8, 11 
hair low on, 7-8, 10, 15 
revealed, 50, 169 

Foundation garments, 133, 
168-169, 180, 167 



Freedom in dress, 168-169 

Frills, 19 

Full skirts, 161, 114 

Fur: 

band, 31 

coats, brown, 111-111 

collars, 34-35 

over lapels, 31 

scarfs, 61, 141 



Garments : 

care of, 316 

foundation, 133, 168-169, 
180, 167 

loose-fold, 187-189 

loose, shapeless, 179-180 

plain-surface, 179 

readjustment of, 164 

tidy, 164 
Garter belts, 163 
Gibson Girl haircomb, 7 
Girdles, 119 
Girl: 

accessories for, 169-170 

apparel of young, 167-181 

childish type, 175-176 

clothes for little, 157-166 

colors for, 168 

fabrics for, 168-169 

hats for, 169 

hygienic requirements for, 
161-165 

junior types of, 174-179 

overgrown, 177 

overweight, 178 

petite type, 176 

posture of, 161-161 

short, 178-179 



Index 



339 



Girl (Cont."): 

slender, 2.76-2.77 

sophisticated, 2.5 3-2.54, 176 

tall, 176-177 

underclothing for, 2.62. 

well-developed, 2.77-2.78 

youthful type, 175-177 
Glasses : 

eye make-up and, 71 

shadowing eye, 51-53 
Gloves, color of, 141 
Golf shoes, 111, 113 
Gray : 

apparel, 111-113 

colors, 158 

dresses, 113 
Gray eyes, colors for, 99-103 
Gray hair, colors for, 104-111 
Green : 

apparel, 113 

coat, 113 
Green eyes, colors for, 99-103 
Growth, children's, 164 

H 
Hair: 

analyzing color of, 54, 77- 

79 
analyzing texture of, 77-79 
bobbed, 7 
brilliance, 68 
brown, 99-103 
brushing, 5, 68 
care of, 316 
center parting of, 7, 11 
colors fading, 70 
colors for gray, 104-111 
colors worn and, 67-70, 

104-1 1 1 



Hair (Cont.'): 

combed off forehead, 8, 11 

covering neck, 9-10 

curls, 11, 13 

curved over cheeks, 11, 15 

dark, 11 

dyes, 68 

enhancing color of, 68-69 

gray, 104-111 

high side-parting of, 8, 11- 
11 

knots, 13-14 

light, 11 

low on forehead, 7-8, 10, 15 

low side-parting of, 15 

luster, 67-68 

massage, 68 

mixed dark and gray, 105- 
106 

natural acidity of, 68 

natural-looking, 6 

shampooing, 68 

shingJed, 7 

silvery, 104-111, 111 

training, 5-6 

value contrasts emphasiz- 
ing, 69-70 

waves, 9, 13-15 

white, 104-111, 111 

whitening, 68 

yellow, 97-98, 101-103 
Haircut, mannish, 7 
Hairdress : 

adaptation to mood, 5 

close, 10-11, 13-14 

concealing round shoulder, 
198 

exaggerated, 13 

eyebrows and, 11-11 



340 



Index 



Hairdress (Cont.^): 

for elderly women, 301-304 

for irregular features, 14-15 

formal, 11 

for middle age, 193-197 

Gibson Girl, 7 

large, loose, 9, 13 

old-fashioned, 6-7 

profile, 13-14 

shaping face by, 5-15 

simple, 5-6, 14 
Hairdresser, visits to, 5-6 
Hairline, concealing, 6 
Handbags, color of, 140-2.41 
Hands, size of, 131-131 
Harmonies, color, 1 11-113 
Hats: 

angle of, 315 

asymmetric trimming of, 

.37-4° 
bisymmetric trimming of, 

black, 1 19-110 
brimless, 51, 198 
brown, 111-111 
coloring changed by, 64 
color of, 111 
crowns, 41 
dark, 61, 64 
drooping brim, 40-41, 45- 

46, 51-53, 198 
facial contour and, 3, 36- 

53 
for elderly women, 304-307 

for girl, 169 

for middle age, 197-300 

for petite women, 139-140 

for short, heavy women, 

148-149 



Hats (CW.): 

irregular horizontal lines, 
39-40 

large women's, 119-130 

lines, 145^147 

minimizing shoulder de- 
fects, 197-198 

navy-blue, 110-111 

neckline and, 14 

small, 51 

stiff, 44 

straight-brimmed, 38-40 

trimmings, 111 

wide-brimmed, 160, 140 
Head, body proportion to, 

130-131 
Health, clothing and, 161-165 
Heaviness, modification of, 

111-131, 141-150 
Heavy: 

cuffs, 140 

fabrics, 1 51-151 
Heels : 

Cuban, 113 

high, 111-113 
Height : 

increasing, 135-137, 151 

lines lessening, 115-119 

modifying, 114-141 
Hemlines : 

concealing diaphragm, 174- 

176 

effects on feet, 113 

pointed, 139 
Henna, 68 
High: 

collars, 115 

heels, 111-113 
High-school age, 167-181 



Ind 



ex 



34i 



High-waisted dress, 214 
Hips: 

concealing large, 160-167 

shoulder proportion to, 132 

swathed, 163-164 

J^-and £/-shapes for, 166- 

167 

Hollows, skin, 313 
Hoops, 2.1-2.2. 

Horizontal lines, 39-40, 138, 
141, 162-165, 184-186, 

2-47 
Hose supporters, 2.62. 

Hosiery: 

color uniformity in, 205- 
2.08, 2.12. 

light, 2.05 

silk, 213 
Hue: 

colors and skin, 81 

contrast of, 113, 11 6-1 18 

eye, 78-79 

matching eye and costume, 
71-72., 115 

rouge, 55-56, 32.6 

vivid, 59-60 

I 

Individual coloring: 

analysis of, 74-80, 108-109 

cool, 81-87 

enhancing, 109 

hats and, 64 

intermediate type of, 96- 

103 
make-up for, 108 
nondescript, 3, 62. 
repetition of, 3 
warm, 88-95 



Infants' clothing, individual- 
ized, 2.5 7-2.66 
Intensity: 

color, 158 

contrast of color, 114 

eye, 78-79 
Interest, color, 2.57-2.59 
Intermediate type coloring, 

colors for, 96-103 
Irregular features : 

beautifying, 7, 12., 2.8-2.9 

hairdress for, 14-15 
Ivory beads, 61 



Jabots : 

concealing figure, 180-181 

length of, 172-174 

long, draped, 186 

modifying large bust, 188 
Jackets : 

bolero, 144 

fingertip, 137 

length of, 143-145, 167, 
xi 9-2x0, 237-2.38 

shape of, 170-173 

short, 219-220, 237-238 
Jade, 117-118 
Jewelry : 

and necklines, 16, 24 

costume design and, 16 

costumes, 112 

shaping face by, 16-24 
Joining skirt and bodice. 

165-167 
Junior girl, apparel for, 267- 

281 
Junior types of girls, 274-279 



342 



Index 



K 

Kimono sleeves, 191-191 

Knitted fabrics, 2.69 

Knots, over abdomen, 177- 

178 



Lace lining, 2.04 
Lapels : 

coat, 31, 33-34 

fur over, 31 
Lapis lazuli, 117-118 
Latin type, colors for, 92.-95 
Legs, beautifying, 133, 105 
Lemon rinse, 68 
Length of: 

blouse, 134, 136-137 

coat, 143-145 

jacket, 143-145, 167, 119- 
2.2.0, 137-2.38 

skirt, 134, 136-137 
Light-colored blouse, 189-190 
Light color values, 61-61, 

156-157 
Light footwear, 111 
Light hair, combing, 11 
Light hosiery, 105 
Lightweight fabrics, 103-104 
Lines : 

combined, 133, 136 

curved, 165-167, 186-188, 
151 

diagonal, 136-137, 139, 

2 -53- 2 -54 
dress, 313 

emphasis of, 4, 45-46 

following facial contours, 

41-43 

hat, 145-147 



Lines (Cont?)\ 

horizontal, 39-40, 141, 148, 

161-165, 184-186, 147 
irregular horizontal hat, 

39-40 
lessening height, 115-119 
manipulation of, 3 
narrow center, 135-137 
oblique, 165-167 
oval, 167 
perpendicular, 135-137, 165, 

186, 135-136 
pointed, 139, 141, 143, 167, 

2 -53- 2 -54 
rounded, 186-187 

shoulder, 145 

straight, 161, 151-153 

straight hat, 38-40 

transitional, 46-47 

U-, 166-167 

V-, 166-167, J 88 
Lingerie, 169 
Lips, color of, 78 
Lipstick : 

changing mouth by, 57-58 

color of, 65, 319 
Little girls, clothes for, 157- 

166 
Long: 

boleros, 170-171 

capes, 196 

coat, 138 

jabots, 186 

shoes, 107-111 

skirts, 110 

sleeves, 141 
Loose : 

bodice, 100-101 

garments, 179-180 



Index 



343 



Loose (Cont.*): 

sleeves, 199-2.00 
Loose-fold dresses, 187-189 
Low neckline, 194-195, 2.35 
Luster : 

eye, 78-79 

hair, 68 

M 

Make-up: 
eye, 70-71 
for dark eyes, 98 
for elderly women, 301-301 
for individual coloring, 108 
matching skin, 55-58 

Mannish haircut, 7 

Mascara, 319 

Massage, hair, 68 

Masses at back, 193-194 

Materials, transparent, 187 

Maternity: 
corsets, 180 
wear, 178-182. 

Mature-type girl, 2.77-2.78 

Maturity in straight lines, 
2.52.-2.53 

Medium skin, colors for, 99 

Middle age: 

apparel for, 2.90-300 
hairdress for, 6, 2.93-2.97 
hats for, 197-300 
simplicity for, 2.92.-2.93 

Minks, brown, 111-111 

Modes, for elderly women, 
314-316 

Mood: 

hair adaptation to, 5 

line adaptation to, 151-154 

Motion study, figure, 315-316 



Mouth, alteration by lipstick, 

57-58 

Muscles, sagging, 168 



N 



Nail polish, colored, 65 
Narrow skirts, 184-185, 111 
Narrow sleeves, 141 
Natural-looking hair, 6 
Navy-blue : 

apparel, 1 10-111 

coat, 110-111 

hats, 110-111 

shoes, 110 
Neck: 

hair covering, 9-10 

thin, 10, 17-19, 34 
Necklaces : 

choker, 17-18 

dark, 61 

facial contour and, 3, 16-10 

modifying necklines, 14 
Necklines : 

and face, 3, 14-35 

closely fitted, 184-186, 188 

for elderly women, 307-311 

hats and, 14 

jewelry and, 16, 14 

low, 16, 194-195, 135 

necklaces modifying, 14 

round, 15, 17, 194-195, 117 

scarfs beautifying, 14, 19- 

3 1 
square, 15-16, 186 

V-, 16-17, 138-139, 187, 119, 

147, 311 

Neutral blonde, 81-85 

Neutralized colors, 158 



344 



Index 



Nose: 
emphasizing, 7, 13, 47-49 
turned-up, 47-48 

O 

Oblique lines, 165-167 
Olive brunette, colors for, 

92.-95 
Opaque fabrics, 103-104 
Opera pumps, 109, 111 
Optical illusion, 130-147, 146 
Ornaments, facial contour 

and, 16-13 
Outdoor clothes, 1 19-110, 

in, 113 
Oval: 

shapes, 166-167 
simulation of face, 3-5, 15, 

Overgrown girl, 2.77-2.78 
Oxfords, 2.06, in 



Pageboy bob, 11 

Pale blonde, 81-85 

Pale complexions, rouge hues 

for, 59-60 
Panels : 

center, 135 

side, 136-137 
Passive colors, 109 
Pearl beads, 61 
Peasant blouses, 191 
Pendant earrings, 11-13 
Perpendicular lines: 

fabric with, 101-103, 135- 
136 

increasing height by, 135- 
137, 165, 186 



Personality: 

accenting, 181-186 
costume background for, 

3. 
feminine, 186-187 

Peters, Dr. Lulu Hunt, 131 

Petite charm, emphasizing, 

131-141 

Petite girl, 176 

Petite women: 

accessories for, 140-141 

footwear for, 141 

hats for, 139-140 

veils for, 45 
Physical features, nonde- 
script, 3 
Pigmentation : 

color adaptation to eye, 67, 

70-73 
color adaptation to hair, 

67-70 

color adaptation to skin, 
54-66 
Pinkish-gray apparel, 111 
Pins, changing facial contours 

by, 16-17 
Plain surface garments, 179 
Pleated skirt, 19, 115 
Pockets, 311 
Pointed : 

capes, 143, 196 

collars, 17-18, 31-33, 143 

drapes, 139 

hemlines, 139 

lines, 139, 141, 143, 167 

seamings, 138-139 
Pointed lines, subtle effect of, 

2 -53~ 2 -54 
Polish, colored nail, 65 



Index 



345 



Posture : 
effect of good, 131-132, 168, 

2-14 
growing girl's, 261-262 

Powder, matching color back- 
ground, 55 
Printed fabrics, 154-156 
Prints, size of, 154-156 
Profile: 

hairdress, 13-14 

view, 32.0 
Proportion : 

body and head, 130-13 1 

shoulder and hips, 132. 
Pumps : 

opera, 109, 2.12. 

strapless, 209 

R 

Raglan sleeves, 191-192 
Rating scale, color readings 

by, 74-80 
Red-haired types, colors for, 

89-93 
Related colors, 11 5-1 16 
Repetition : 

features emphasized by, 46- 

.47 

lines emphasized by, 45-46 
Revers, 1 80-1 81 
Rinse, acid, 68 
Rotund girl, 278-279 
Rouge : 

hue, 326 

matching skin, 55-56 

placement of, 57 
Round : 

capes, 221 

collar, 25, 27, 143 



Round (Cont?)\ 

necklines, 25, 27, 194-195, 

"7 
Rounded lines at waist, 186- 

l8 7 
Round features, beautifying, 

4-5 
Round shoulders: 

capes concealing, 196-197 

collars concealing, 195-196 

earrings touching, 23 

hair styles concealing, 198 

hats modifying, 197-198 

lines improving, 191-198 

Ruffles, 29 



Sallowness, minimizing, 59- 

61 
Scale, keeping in, 239-241 
Scarfs : 

and face, 3 

beautifying necklines, 24, 
29-31 

color interest by, 112 

concealing arms, 201-202 

concealing diaphragm by, 
172-174 

dark, 62 

fur, 62, 241 

shape of, 193 
Seamings : 

pointed, 138-139 

V-, 138-139, 187 
Seams, shoulder, 192-193 
Self-analysis, 4 
Self-color collar, 143 
Self-confidence, 326 
Set-in sleeves, 191-192, 202 



346 



Index 



Shampooing, 68 

Shapeless garments, 179-180 

Shawl collar, long, 34-35 

Shingled hair, 7 

Shiny fabrics, 148-149, 187, 

311-313 
Shoes : 

black, 1 19-110 

brown, 11 1 

color uniformity in, 104- 
2.08, 2.12. 

for elderly women, 317 

for petite women, 2.41 

for short, heavy women, 
149-150 

golf, in, 113 

large women's, 130-131 

light, 111 

long, slender, 107-111 

navy-blue, 110 

sport, 111, 113 

square tip, 110-11 1 

strapped, 106-107, 109-110, 
113 

striking, 3 

walking, 11 1, 113 

wing tip, 110-11 1 

with thick soles, 107 
Shopping, clothes, 117 
Short boleros, 170-171 
Short face, beautifying, 4-5 
Short girl, 178-179 
Short, heavy women, 141- 

143, 141-150 
Short jackets, 119-110, 137- 

138 
Shortness, modifying, 131- 

150 
Short skirt, 115, 117, 134, 136 



Short sleeves, 140, 141 
Short, stout women, hats for, 

148-149 
Short, thin women, 141, 131- 

141 
Shoulders : 

closely fitted, 184-186 

concealing round, 191-198 

flowers at, 3, 14, 193 

hip proportion to, 131 

lines, 145 

seams, 191-193 

supports, 161-163 
Side panels, 136-137 
Side-parting : 

high, 8, 11-11 

low, 15 
Silhouette: 

broad-base triangular, 160- 
161 

color adaptation to, 148, 
156-159 

concealing, 150-15 1, 156- 

J 5 8 . 
equalizing, 181 

improving, 117-154 

revealing, 148-149, 151^158 

texture and, 148-156 

Silk hosiery, 113 

Silvery hair, colors for, 104- 
iii, 111 

Simplicity: 

in hairdressing, 5-6, 14 
in straight lines, 151-153 
of apparel , 191-193 
of dress, 141 

Size: 

color effect on, 148, 156-159 
decreasing, 150, 157-158 



Index 



347 



Size (Com.*): 

increasing, 148-15 1, 156- 

158 

maternity wear, 1 81-181 
modification of, 13-14, 117- 

^.4 
scaling prints to, 156 

texture effects on, 148-156 
Skin: 

adaptation of colors worn 
to, 54-66 

cool, 97-103 

discolorations, 313 

hue, 81 

make-up matching, 55-58 

medium, 99 

powder matching, 55 

rouge matching, 55-56 

tones, 76-78 

wrinkles, 313 

yellow in, 59-61 
Skirt: 

and blouse contrasts, 2.37- 
x 3 8 

and bodice joining, 165-167 

close, 2.12. 

full, 162., 181, 114 

horizontal lines of, 184- 
186, 147 

length of, 134, 2.36-2.37 

long, 2.2.0 

low, full, 181 

narrow, 184-185, 112. 

pleated, 2.15 

short, 2.15, 2.17, 2.34, 2.36 
Sleeveless dress, 142., 2.01-2.02. 
Sleeves : 

close-fitting, 140-141, 115 

color of, 141 



Sleeves (Cont?)\ 

kimono, 191-191 

long, 141 

loose, 199-100 

narrow, 141 

raglan, 191-191 

set-in, 191-191, 101 

short, 140, 141 

wide, 140-141 
Slender: 

girl, 176-177 

shoes, 107-111 
Slenderness : 

achieving effects of, 15 1 

modification of, 10, 44-45, 
114-111, 131-141 
Soft: 

collars, 186, 188 

fabrics, 103-104 
Soft textures, for petite 

women, 139 
Soles, thick shoe, 107 
Solid girl, 178 

Sophistication, 153-154, 176 
Spectacles, shadowing, 51- 

53 
Sport : 

clothes, 1 19-110 

shoes, 111, 113 
Sportswear, collar for, 18 
Spring apparel, 111 
Square : 

collars, 143 

necklines, 15-16, 186 

tip shoe, 110-11 1 
Square face, beautifying, 4-5 
Stiff fabrics, 149-151 
Stiff hats, softening effect of, 

44 



348 



Index 



Stout women: 

colors for, 158-159, 143 

footwear for, 149-150 

hats for, 2.48-2.49 

improving figure of, 141- 
2.50 

textures for, 143 
Straight-line dresses, 162. 
Straight lines, dignity in, 

2.52.-2.53 
Strapped shoes, 2.06-2.07, 109- 

110, 2.13 
Straps : 

curved, 109-110 

wide shoe, 2.06-2.07, 2.09- 
110 
Strong color, costumes of, 3 
Styles : 

for elderly women, 314-316 

modified princess, 133 

new, 32.2. 

quaint, 2.32.-2.33 

softening, 15 
Suits : 

close-fitting, 116 

severely tailored, 2.2.7 
Summer apparel, 111 
Supports : 

hose, 162. 

shoulder, 2.62.-2.63 
Swathed hips, 163-164 



Tall girl, 2.76-2.77 
Tall, heavy women: 
fabrics for, 2.2.2.-2.19 
footwear for, 130-131 
hats for, 119-130 
textures for, 111-114 



Tallness, modification of, 114- 

2-3 1 
Tartaric acid, 68 

Textures : 

adaptation to silhouette, 
148-156 

analyzing hair, 77-79 

and color contrasts, 179 

colors changed by, 63-64 

dress, 313 

dull, 149-150 

for stout women, 143 

for tall, heavy women, 
111-114 

shiny, 148-149, 187 

soft, 139 

transparent, 187 
Thigh, size of, 133 
Thin fabrics, 103-104 
Thin face, beautifying, 5 , 10- 
13, 15, 17-11, 14-19, 34, 
311 
Thin neck, beautifying, 10, 

. J 7-i9> 34 . 
Thinness, modification of, 10, 

44-45, 114-111 

Throat, collar open at, 19-30 

Tidiness, 164 

Tie, ascot, 31 

Tight: 

collars, 115 

sleeves, 115 

suits, 116 
Tints, flesh, 59, 61 
Tones, skin, 76-78 
Training hair, 5-6 
Transitional lines, 46-47 
Transparent fabrics, 151-156, 
187, 103-104 



Index 



349 



Trimmings : 

concealing round shoulders, 
193-194 

hat, 112. 
Tunic, short, 136 
Turban: 

as height influence, 139-140 

draped with irregular line, 
39-40 

narrow, 36-37 

straight, 39 
Turned-up nose, 47-48 
Turquoise, 117-118 
Tweeds, 169 

U 

£/-lines, 167 

Underclothing, girl's, 2.62. 
Underwaist, 2.63 
Underwear, 2.63 
Upper arm, hiding large, 199- 
2.04 

V 

Value: 

contrasts, 69-70, 113-114 

dark color, 62. 

eye, 78-79 

high color, 59 

light color, 61-61 

low color, 59 
Veils: 

for slender women, 44-45 

types of, 43-45 
Vestee fronts, 187 
Vinegar rinse, 68 
Vivid blonde, colors for, 83- 
86 



Vivid brunette, colors for, 

91-94 
Vivid colors: 

for white hair, 107-111 

hair and, 70 
Vivid hues, 59-60, 158 
F-lines : 

at waist, 177-178, 188 

modifying bust, 186-187 
F-necklines, 2.6-2.7, 138-139, 

187, 2.19, 2.47, 32.2. 
P^-seamings, 138-139, 187 
P'-shaped collars, 143 
F-shapes, with vestee fronts, 

187 

V-yoke, 147 

W 

Waist: 

curved lines at, 188 

straight hanging, 196-197 

under, 2.63 

F-line at, 177-178, 188 
Waistline, 133, 2.36-2.37 
Walking shoes, 2.1 1, 2.13 
Warm coloring, colors for, 

88-95 
Warm colors: 

combined cool and, 116- 
118, 158-159 

hair and, 70 
Warmth of clothes, 2.65 
Waves, hair, 9, 13-15 
Wear, maternity, 178-182. 
Weight: 

control, 131 

gaining, 32.2. 

losing, 32.2. 



350 



Index 



III-I3I, 



Weight (Cont.y. 
modification of, 

141-150 
normal, 131 
of clothes, 165 
of dress, 169-170 

White hair: 

colors for, 104-111, 111 
vivid color for, 107-111 

Wide belt, 138 

Wide-brimmed hats, 160, 140 

Wide sleeves, 140-141 

Wide straps, 106-107, 109-110 

Width, increasing facial, 7- 
11, 17-16, 31-33, 40-41 

Wine-color apparel, 113 

Wing tip shoe, 11 0-1 11 

Winter apparel, 111 

Women : 

accenting individuality of, 

181-186 
ages of, 104-111, 157-311 
apparel of middle-aged, 

190-300 
apparel of young, 181-189 
colors for elderly, 104-111 
colors for stout, 158-159 
dress for elderly, 301-317 
dress for energetic, 187-189 
middle-aged, 6 
petite, 131-141 
self-analysis of, 4 



Women (CW.): 

short, heavy, 141-143, 141- 

150 
short, slender, 141, 131-141 
smart business, 318-316 
tall, heavy, 111-131 
tall, slender, 114-111 
thin, 10, 44-45, 114-111 
very feminine, 186-187 
vitalizing, 104-111 
white-haired, 111 

Woolen fabrics, 143 

World War, 7 

Worsteds, 143 

Wrapover models, 178-179 

Wrinkles, removing, 313 



Yellow, minimizing skin, 59- 

61 
Yellow hair, colors for, 97- 

98, 101-103 
Yokes, 186, 147 
Young face, hairdress for, 6 
Young girls, apparel of, 167- 

181 
Young women: 

accenting individuality of, 

181-186 
apparel of, 181-189 
Youthful girl, 175-177 



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